Links to Lanakis Classical Cryptography Course, Lectures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12


By Randy Nichols (LANAKI)
President of the American Cryptogram Association from 1994-1996.
Executive Vice President from 1992-1994





December 27, 1995







In Lecture 5, we begin our attack on substitution ciphers created in languages other than English. First, we develop an understanding of cryptography in its role as a cultural universal. Next, we tour the elements of language and the common cryptographic threads that make cryptographic analysis possible. We then look at GERMAN Xenocrypts, applied traffic analysis and the ADFGVX cipher of 1918 WWI vintage.





Xenocrypts are foreign language substitutions. Solving a Xenocrypt (aka XENO) gives double pleasure; not only do you have the fun of solving, but also the satisfaction of knowing that you are acquiring a bowing acquaintance with other languages.

PHOENIX has compiled and edited a Xenocrypt handbook [XEN1] which brings together material published in The Cryptogram since 1940. The book will be available to the KREWE in 1996. It is an excellent tool. Lectures 5-7 will augment his efforts. Quoted from PHOENIX's Preface in reference [XEN1]:


"Don't be afraid of Xenocrypts. The languages used should not offer particular difficulties. Comparing an English printers table (ETAINORSH...) with any of these languages will show a lot of resemblance. That's because English contains elements of most of the languages. Spellings and endings will differ, but there often will be solid 'root' that strongly resembles an English word. Most short English words are of Saxon origin, akin to Danish, Swedish, Dutch, and more remotely German. Longer words come to us from Latin or Norman - French in many instances, and all have cognates in common with English, generally differing slightly from the English version, but often not at all, especially in French."

In New Orleans, I keynoted the 1994 ACA Convention with the possibility that any language could be learned from its cryptographic building blocks. Xenocrypts represent a cultural universal expressed at its common denominator - mathematics. [NICX]

I suggested that languages be taught in schools first via cryptography and then via sound and structure. This is how I taught myself the rudiments of Russian, Japanese and Korean. Cryptography enhanced my passable understanding of French and reasonable efforts with German.

The real enjoyment came when I could understand Goethe in German, and translated parts of Budo Shoshinshu by the 17 Century author Daidoji Yuzan [SADL]. Solving Xeno's can open our eyes to other cultures.





Linguistic anthropologists have used cryptography to reconstruct ancient languages by comparing contemporary descendants and in so doing make discoveries about history. Others make inferences about universal features of language, linking them to uniformities in the brain. Still others study linguistic differences to discover varied world views and patterns of thought in a multitude of cultures. [KOTT]

The Rossetta Stone found by the Egyptian Dhautpol and the French officer Pierre-Francois Bouchard near the town of Rosetta in the Nile Delta, gave us a look at Syriac, Greek and Egyptian Hieroglyphs all of the same text. The fascinating story of its decipherment is covered in Kahn. [KAHN] Of special interest was the final decipherment of the Egyptian writing containing homophones - different signs standing for the same sound. [ROSE]

Until the late 1950's linguists thought that the study of language should proceed through a sequence of stages of analysis. The first stage was phonology, the study of sounds used in speech. Phones are speech sounds present and significant in each language. They were recorded using the International Phonetic Alphabet, a series of symbols devised to describe dozens of sounds that occur in different languages.

The next stage was morphology, the study of forms in which sound combine, to form morphemes - words and their meaningful constituents. The word cats has two morphemes /cat/ and /s/ indicating the animal and plurality. A lexicon is a dictionary of all morphemes. A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit of speech. [MAYA] Isolating or analytic languages are those in which words are morphologically unanalyzable, like Chinese or Vietnamese. Agglutinative languages string together successive morphemes. Turkish is a good example of this. Inflection languages change the form of a word to mark all kinds of grammar distinctions, such as tense or gender. Indo- European languages tend to be highly inflectional.

The next step was to study syntax, the arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences.





No language contains all the sounds in the International Phonetic Alphabet. Nor is the number of phonemes -significant sound contrasts in a given language - infinite. Phonemes lack meaning in themselves but through sound contrasts distinguish meaning. We find them in minimal pairs, words that resemble each in al but one sound. An example is the minimal pair pit/bit. The /p/ and /b/ are phonemes in English. Another example is bit and beat which separates the phonemes /I/ and /i/ in English. [KOTT] Friedman describes a similar phenomena called homologs and uses them to solve a variety of cryptograms. [FR2] A phoneme is the smallest unit of distinctive sound. [MAYA]

Standard (American) English (SE), the region free dialect of TV network newscasters, has about thirty-five phonemes of at least eleven vowels and twenty four consonants. The number of phonemes varies from language to language - from fifteen to sixty, averaging between thirty and forty. The number of phonemes varies between dialects. In American English, vowel phonemes vary noticeably from dialect to dialect. Readers should pronounce the words in Figure 5-1, paying attention to whether they distinguish each of the vowel sounds. We Americans do not generally pronounce them at all. [BOLI]


                           Figure 5-1
                         Vowel Phonemes
                   Standard American English
       According to Height of Tongue and Tongue Position
               in Front, Center and Back of Mouth

Tongue High i u I U ea ua o e ou Mid ae a Tongue Low Tongue Central Tongue Front Back
Phonetic symbols are identified by English words that include them; note that most are minimal pairs.


    high front (spread) [i] as in beat lower high front (spread) [I] as in bit mid front (spread) [ea] as in bait lower mid front (spread) [e] as in bet low front [ae] as in bat central [ua] as in butt low back [a] as in pot lower mid back (rounded) [ou] as in bought mid back (rounded) [o] as in boat lower high back (rounded) [U] as in put high back (rounded) [u] as in boot
Phonetics studies sounds in general, what people actually say in various languages.

Phonemics is concerned with sound contrasts of a particular language. In English /b/ and /v/ are phonemes, occurring in minimal pairs such as bat and vat. In Spanish, the contract between [b] and [v] doesn't distinguish meaning, and are not phonemes. The [b] sound is used in Spanish to pronounce words spelled with either b or v. (Non phonemic phones are enclosed in brackets).

In any language a given phoneme extends over a phonetic range. In English the phoneme /p/ ignores the phonetic contrast between the [pH] in pin and the [p] in spin. How many of you noticed the difference? [pH] is aspirated, so that a puff of air follows the [p]. not true with [p] in spin. To see the difference, light a match and watch the flame as you say the two words. In Chinese the contrast between [p] and [pH] is distinguished only by the contrast between an aspirated and unaspirated [p]. [BOLI]





Noam Chomsky's influential book Syntactic Structures (1957) advocated a new method of linguistic analysis - Transform- ational-generative grammar. [CHOM] Chomsky felt that a language is more than the surface phenomena just discussed (sounds, words, word order). He felt that all languages shared a limed set of organizing principles. Chomsky observed that every normal child who grows up in society develops language easily and automatically. This occurs because the brain contains a genetically transmitted blueprint, or basic linguistic plan for building language. Chomsky called this universal grammar. As children learn their native language, they experiment with their blueprint, reject some sections applying to other languages and gradually focus in and accept the principles of their own language. They do this at about the same age. His study also showed that we learn languages at similar rates. There are universal improper generalizations (foot, foots; hit, hitted) which eventually are corrected.

We master a specific grammar as we learn to speak. These rules let us convert what we want to say into what we do say. People who hear us and speak our language understand our meaning. This works at a cryptographic level also. Chomsky distinguishes between competence (what the speaker must and does know about his language in order to speak and understand) and performance (what a speaker actually says in social situations or writes to someone ). Competence develops during childhood and becomes an unconscious structure. The linguist or cryptographer must discover the structure by looking at deep structures (the mental level) and the surface structure (actual speech) to find the transformational rules that link them. Figure 5-2. shows the Chomsky Model.


                           Figure 5-2
                         Chomsky Model
               For Message From Speaker to Hearer
                    or Writer on Both Sides


... Sounds (phonological component)... . . . . . . Surface-structure sentence Surface-structure sentence . . . . Transformational rule Transformational rule . . . . Deep structure sentence Deep structure sentence . . . . . . Thought Thought (meaning, semantic component (meaning, semantic component ^ SPEAKER HEARER
The Chomsky model tells us why Xenos are so valuable. The human brain contains a limited set of rules for organizing language. The fact that people can learn foreign languages and that words and ideas can be translated from one language into another supports the Chomsky model that all humans have similar linguistic abilities and thought processes.





Other linguists take the view that rather than universal structures as clues to relationships between languages, they belief that different languages produce different thinking and writing. Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf argue that speakers think about things in particular ways. For example, the third person singular pronouns of English (he, she, him, her, his, hers) distinguish gender, whereas those of the Palaung of Burma do not. [BURL] [SAPR] [WHOR]

Gender exists in English, although a fully developed noun- gender and adjative-agreement system as in French and other Romance Languages (la belle fille, la beau fils), does not. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggests that English speakers pay more attention to differences between males and females than the Palaung but less than the French and Spanish speakers.

English divides time into past, present, and future. Hopi, a language of the Pueblo region of the Native American Southwest does not. Hopi does distinguish between events that exist or have existed and those don't or don't yet, along with imaginary and hypothetical events. Differing perceptions of time and reality cause difference in spoken and written thought.





A lexicon or vocabulary is a language's dictionary, its set of names for things, events and ideas. APEX DX can probably confirm that Eskimos have several distinct words for snow. In English all forms of snow are the same (unless you are a dope dealer). The Nuer of the Sudan have an elaborate vocabulary to describe cattle. Specialized distinctions between groups is called focal vocabulary. Cattle vocabulary of Texas ranchers is more extensive than New Yorkers; Aspen ski bums differentiate types of snow that are missing from the lexicons of Florida retirees. Ten years ago who would have 'faxed' anything. Simplification of often used words are called monolexemes and compound expressions are simplified such as tropical storm to rain. A television becomes TV, an automobile a car, and a videocassette recorder becomes a VCR.

Semantics refers to a language meaning system. Language, culture and thought are interrelated. There is considerable difference between female and male Americans in regard to color terms. Distinctions implied by such terms as salmon, rust, peach, beige, teal, mauve, cranberry, and dusk orange aren't in the vocabularies of most American men. Ask a fashionable woman and she will know them all. [LAKE]





Knowledge of linguistic relationships is often valuable to determine the events of the past 5000 years. By studying contemporary daughter languages, past language features can be reconstructed. Daughter languages descend from the same parent language that has been changing for thousands of years. The original language from which they diverge is called a protolanguage. French and Spanish are daughter languages of Latin. Language evolves over time into subgroups (closely related from a taxonomy point of view) but with distinct cultural differences. Figure 5-3. shows the main languages and subgroups of the Indo European language stock.

All these daughter languages have developed out of the protolanguage (Proto-Indo-European) spoken in Northern Europe about 5,000 years ago. Note subgroupings. English, a member of the Germanic branch, is more closely related to German and Dutch than it is to Italic or Romance languages such as French and Spanish. However, English shares many linguistic features with French through borrowing and diffusion. [FROM]

The doctrine of linguistic relativity is central to cryptographic treatment of language ciphers. It states that all known languages and dialects are effective means of communication. [KOTT] Nichols Theorem states that if they are linguistically related, they can be codified, enciphered, deciphered and treated as cryptographic units for analysis and statistical treatment. [NICX]



Figure 5 -3

             Main Languages of Indo-European Stock

  .             .                .                         .
  .             .                .                         .
CELTIC        ITALIC          GERMANIC                     .
  .             .             .      . . . . .             .
  .             .             .              .             .
o Welsh         .             .              .             .
o Irish         .           West            North          .
o Scots Gaelic  .             .               .            .
o Breton        .             .               .            .
                .             .               .            .
             ROMANCE         o Dutch         o Danish      .
                .            o English       o Icelandic   .
              Latin          o Flemish       o Norwegian   .
                .            o Frisian       o Swedish     .
                .            o German                      .
              o Catalan      o Yiddish                     .
              o French                                     .
              o Italian                                    .
              o Portuguese                                 .
              o Provencal                                  .
              o Rumanian                                   .
              o Spanish                                    .
.        .              .
.                     .        .              .
HELLENIC            Albanian   .              .
   .                           .              .
   .                          Armenian        .
Ancient Greek                                 .
   .                                          .
   .                                          .
 Greek                                        .
.                     .                    .
.                     .                    .
INDO-IRANIAN        BALTIC                SLAVIC
    .                 .                    .
    .                 .                    .
    .                o Latvian            o Bulgarian
    .                o Lithuanian         o Czech
    .                                     o Macedonian
    .                                     o Polish
o Old Persian                             o Russian
o Persian                                 o Serbo-Croatian
o SANSKRIT                                o Slovak
     .                                    o Slovenian
     .                                    o Ukrainian
  o Bengali
  o Hindi
  o Punjabi
  o Urdu





Figure 5-3 pertains to live languages. Professor Cyrus H. Gordon in his fascinating book "Forgotten Scripts" shows how cryptography is used to recover ancient writings. He tells the story of the unraveling of each of these ancient languages: Egyptian, Old Persion, Sumer-Akkadian, Hittite, Ugaritic, Eteocretan, Minoan and Eblaite. He specializes in cuniform and hieroglyphic inscriptions and gives us a glimpse into the ancient societies that gave birth to the Western world. [GORD] See also references [BARB], [POPE] and [STUR].





There is a common cryptographic thread for most languages. All known writing systems are partly or wholly phonetic, and express the sounds of a particular language. Writing is speech put in visible form, in such a way that any reader instructed in its conventions can reconstruct the vocal message. Writing as "visible speech" was invented about five thousand years ago by Sumerians and almost simultaneously by ancient Egyptians.

The ancient Mayan knew that it was 12 cycles, 18 katuns, 16 tuns, 0 uinals, and 16 kins since the beginning of the Great Cycle. The day was 12 Cib 14 Uo and was ruled by the seventh Lord of the Night. The moon was nine days old. Precisely 5,101 of our years and 235 days had passed. So said the ancient Mayan scribes. We remember the day as 14 May 1989.





Three kinds of writing systems have been identified: Rebus which is a combination of logograms and phonetic signs; Syllabic such as CV - consonant vowel such as Cherokee or Inuit; and Alphabetic, which is phonemic, the individual consonants and vowels make up the sounds of the language.

Table 5-2 differentiates writing systems by the number of signs used. [MAYA]




         Writing System              No. of Signs

         Sumerian                         600+
         Egyptian                       2,500
         Hittite Hieroglyphic             497
         Chinese                        5,000+

         "Pure" Syllabic
         Persian                          40
         Linear B                         87
         Cypriote                         56
         Cherokee                         85

         Alphabetic or Consonantal
         English                          26
         Anglo-Saxon                      31
         Sanskrit                         35
         Etruscan                         20
         Russian                          36
         Hebrew                           22
         Arabic                           28

Michael D. Coe classifies the entire Proto- Mayan languages. In fourteen daughter divisions of Proto-Mayan, there are thirty one sub languages from Huastec to Tzuthil. Extraordinary story of applied cryptanalysis and applied linguistics. [MAYA]





I used to think that Xenocrypts - non English cryptograms, were very difficult to solve. The 'aha' light came on several years ago, when I realized that most languages share the common framework of mathematics and statistics. To be able to solve Xenocrypts, it is only necessary to learn the basic (group) mathematical structure of the language, to use a bidirectional translation dictionary and to recognize the underlying cipher construct. [NICX]

Many challenge ciphers start with the problem of recognizing the language and then the distribution of characters within the particular language. The legendary W. F. Friedman once remarked: "treating the frequency distribution as a statistical curve, when such treatment is possible, is one of the most useful and trustworthy methods in cryptography." [FR1], [FRE]

Table 1 gives the frequency distributions of ten of my favorite languages (sans Russian, Chinese and Japanese which require character sets that will not transfer via my e-mail). The frequencies in Table 5-1 have been developed from various sources. Table 5-1 frequencies may differ from other published data, based on text derived solely from literature or military sources, because I have included the practical text from my solved Xeno's over the years. Letters used in cryptograms tend to shift the frequency distribution. Frequencies of letters, and their order, are not fixed quantities in any language. Group frequencies, however, are fairly constant in every language. This is the common thread - the linguistic relativity of all languages. [NICX], [NIC1]


    Partial Frequency Distribution For Cracking Xenocrypts

            16   8   7  6    5    4     2       <1

            10  9    7    6    4   3      <2
LATIN:      I   E   UTA  SRN  OM  CPL    (bal)

            18   8    7    6   5  4   3   2    <1
FRENCH:     E    AN  RSIT  UO  L  D  CMP  VB   F-Y

            14  13  12   8  6    5     4   3   2   <1
PORTUGUESE: A   E   O   RS  IN  DMT   UCL  P  QV   (bal)

            18  11  8  7    5     4    3    2     <1
GERMAN:     E   N   I  RS  ADTU  GHO  LBM  CW    (bal)

            15  12  8    7    5   4   3    1      <1
CATALAN:    E   A   S  ILRNT  OC  DU  MP  BVQGF   (bal)

            16  13  8   6    5      4    3    <2
HUNGARIAN:  E   A   T   OS   LNZ   KIM  RGU  (bal)

            13  12  11  9  7    6   5    3     2   <1
ITALIAN:    E   A   I   O  L   NRT  SC  DMO'U  VG   (bal)

            20  10   7   6  5   4   3      2       <1
DUTCH:      E   N   IAT  O  DL  S  GKH  UVWBJMPZ   (bal)

            13   9  8   7   5    4   3    1    <1
SPANISH:    EA   O  S  RNI  DL  CTU  MP   GYB  (bal)




English has its characteristic frequencies and sequence data (based on 10,000 letters):

%       12   10 8   8 7 7 7 6 5   4-3     2      1     < 1
A E I O U          38.58%

L N R S T          33.43%

J K Q X Z           1.11%

E T A O N          45.08%

E T A O N I S R H  70.02%


Digram Order:  TH / HE / AN / IN / ER / RE / ES / ON / EA / TI
                / AT / ST / EN / ND / OR

Trigram Order: THE / AND / THA / ENT / ION / TIO / FOR / NDE

Reversals:   ER RE / ES SE / AN NA /TI IT /ON NO / IN NI

Initials:  T A O   S H I W C   B P F D M R

Finals:    E S T D N R O Y

Vowel %    40%   (y included)

The ACA Xenocrypt Handbook compiled by PHOENIX, develops similar mathematical data on fifteen languages presented in The Cryptogram on a regular basis. [XEN1]

Review Lecture 2 Kullback's tests and Friedman's I.C. test.

Kullback gives the following tables for Monoalphabetic and Digraphic texts for eight languages:

Note that the English plain text value is slightly less than Friedman's. [KULL] [SINK]



Monoalphabetic        Digraphic
                     Text                 Text

   English        0.0661N(N-1)          0.0069N(N-1)
   French         0.0778N(N-1)          0.0093N(N-1)
   German         0.0762N(N-1)          0.0112N(N-1)
   Italian        0.0738N(N-1)          0.0081N(N-1)
   Japanese       0.0819N(N-1)          0.0116N(N-1)
   Portuguese     0.0791N(N-1)
   Russian        0.0529N(N-1)          0.0058N(N-1)
   Spanish        0.0775N(N-1)          0.0093N(N-1)

                     Random Text

   Monographic         Digraphic        Trigraphic
   .038N(N-1)         .0015N(N-1)      .000057N(N-1)

XENO's - foreign language substitutions, as given in the Xenocrypt Department of The Cryptogram, are usually quotations, or simple normal wording. Thus the Frequency Table of a Xenocrypt will follow closely to the normal Frequency Table of its language. Arranging these two tables in order of frequency, rather than alphabetically, may be used for testing probable equivalents. When words are found, if the meaning is not known, a dictionary helps.

The Contact and Position Tables are used just as in solving English cryptograms.

Lets start off with German Xenocrypts.

GERMAN DATA [ Based on 60,046 letters of text in FRE2] Absolute Frequencies


A   3,601    G  1,921   L  1,988   Q      6   V   523
B   1,023    H  2,477   M  1,360   R  4,339   W   899
C   1,620    I  4,879   N  6,336   S  4,127   X    12
D   3,248    J    192   O  1,635   T  3,447   Y    24
E  10,778    K    747   P    499   U  2,753   Z   654
F     958                                       ======

Monographic Kappa Plain, German Language = 0.0787, I.C. = 2.05

Relative Frequencies reduced to 1000 letters

E     180    T    57    G    32    F    16     P     8
N     106    D    54    O    27    W    15     J     3
I      81    U    46    C    27    K    13     Y     -
R      72    H    41    M    23    Z    11     X     -
S      69    L    33    B    17    V     9     Q     -
A      60                                         =======

Groups: Vowels: A, E, I, O, U, Y = 39.4%
High-Frequency Consonants: D, N, R, S, T = 35.8%
Medium-Frequency Consonants: B, C, F, G, H, L, M, W = 20.4%
Low-Frequency Consonants: J, K, P, Q, V, X, Z = 4.4 %

8 most frequent letters (E, N, I, R, S, A, T, and D) = 67.9% (descending order)

Initials ( based on 9,568 letters of text)

D   1,716     U    550    Z   343    K   263    O   135
A     762     W    544    M   339    P   181    T   106
S     698     G    461    N   306    R   167    C    22
E     686     B    460    F   280    L   158    Q     2
I     581     V    408    H   265    J   135      ======

Digraphs [Based on 60,046 letters reduced to 5,000 digraphs]

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M
A  4  14  10   4  33   7   9   7   1   1   2  33  13
B  6              48       1   1   5           3
C                            130           5
D 29   2       8 127   1   2   2  60       1   3   2
E 13  22  10  31  13  12  32  24  90   2   6  28  25
F  7   1       3  15   7   2       2           2   1
G 10   1       8  78   1   2   2   8       2   7   1
H 29   1       8  64   1   2   1  14       2   8   3
I  3   1  39   7  91   2  18   7   2       7  12  11
J  4               8
K 12   1       1  11       1   1   1           5
L 26   3   1   6  27   1   2      37       3  20    1
M 16   3       4  26   2  22   1  14    1  2   1   11
N 39  12 118  58   9  57   8  35   4   10  6  10   18
O  1   3   5   3  11   3   3   3           1  18    6
P 10               5   4       1   2           1
R 34  11   5  35  60   9  12   9  37    2  11  6    8
S 14   6  55  13  46   3   7   3  30    1   5  4    7
T 25   3      17  88   2   4   6  40    1   3  7    3
U  1   2   8   2  37  15   5   1            2  2   11
V  1              19               3
W 16              24              20    3
Z  1           1   8               5            1

Digraphs [Based on 60,046 letters reduced to 5,000 digraphs]


N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z
A  48       2      22  27  23  36   1   1           1
B       3          11   2   1   3       1           1
D   2   4   1       5   6   2   9   2   2           2
E 235   3   6     195  68  28  24   9  15           7
F   1   3          10   2  10  12
G   3   1          11   8   5   8   2   1           1
H   6   6   1      20   4  23   7   2   3           1
I  84  13   1       7  53  44   1   2   1           1
J                                   3
K       9          10   1   5   4
L   2   4              10  12   6   1               1
M   1   8   5       1   3   3   9   1   1           1
N  18   8   5       4  36  27  20  10  17          14
O  33   1   5      18  12   4   1   1   5           1
P       7   2       7       1   1
Q                               1
R  12  19   3       6  22  18  26   6   8           5
S   3  16   6       2  40  57   9   5   5       1   5
T   4   4          14  20   7  16   2  10          13
U  76       2      18  28  14   1   1   2           1
V      21
W       6                       6
Z       2                    4 27       4

Digraphic Kappa plain = 0.0111, I.C. = 7.50

95 Digraphs comprising 75% of German plain text based on 5,000 digraphs arranged according to relative frequencies.



EN-  235   RE- 60  NA- 39  ED- 31  TA- 25  HR- 20  TU- 16
ER-  195   DI- 60  LI- 37  SI- 30  EM- 25  LL- 20  WA- 16
CH-  130   NE- 58  UE- 37  HA- 29  EH- 24  VE- 19  UF- 15
DE-  127   NG- 57  RI- 37  DA- 29  EU- 24  RO- 19  FE- 15
ND-  118   ST- 57  AU- 36  EL- 28  WE- 24  OR- 18  EW- 14
IE-   91   SC- 55  NS- 36  US- 28  HT- 23  UR- 18  AB- 14
EI-   90   IS- 53  NI- 35  ET- 28  AT- 23  NN- 18  HI- 14
TE-   88   BE- 48  RD- 35  AS- 27  AR- 22  RT- 18  TR- 14
IN-   84   AN- 48  RA- 34  LE- 27  RS- 22  OL- 18  SA- 14
GE-   78   SE- 46  AE- 33  NT- 27  EB- 22  IG- 17  MI- 14
    -----  IT- 44  ------  ZU- 27  VO- 21  NW- 17  NZ- 14
a)  1,236  SS- 40  2,508 b)LA- 26  NU- 20  TD- 16  UD- 14
           TI- 40          ME- 26  WI- 20  MA- 16  SD- 13
UN-    76  IC- 39  ON- 33  RU- 26  TS- 20  SO- 16  ------
ES-    68          AL- 33                           3,750
HE-    64          EG- 32

    a) 10 digraphs before this line represent 25% of German Plain
    b) 37 digraphs before this line represent 50% of German Plain
Frequent Digraph Reversals (based on table of 5,000 digraphs)
EN-  235   NE- 58  IE- 91  EI- 90  ES- 68  SE- 46  AN- 48
ER-  195   RE- 60  IN- 84  NI- 35  IS- 53  SI- 30  IT- 44
DE-  127   ED- 31  GE- 78  EG- 32          NA- 39  TI- 40

Rare Digraph Reversals (based on previous 5,000 digraphs)

CH-  130   HC-  0  ND-113  DN- 2  NG- 57  GN-3  SC- 55 CS-0

Doublets (based on previous 5,000 digraphs)
SS-  40  EE- 13  FF- 7  RR-  6  GG-  2  PP- 2  OO - 1
LL-  20  MM- 11  TT- 7  AA-  4  II-  2  HH- 1  UU - 1
NN-  18  DD-  8

Initial Digraphs (based on 9,568 words)

DE-  805  EI- 300  DA- 244  WE- 192  ER- 153  ZU- 124  ST- 112
DI-  567  GE- 299  VO- 214  VE- 172  HA- 140  MI- 117  IN- 111
UN-  428  BE- 252  SI- 197  WI- 155  AL- 134  SN- 112  SE- 111
AU-  318

Trigraphs (top 102 based on 60,046 letters of German text)
SCH- 666  ERE- 313  NEN- 198  AUS- 162  IST- 142  HRE- 124
DER- 602  ENS- 270  SSE- 191  TIS- 159  STA- 141  HER- 122
CHE- 599  CHT- 264  REI- 190  BER- 157  DES- 140  ACH- 119
DIE- 564  NGE- 263  TER- 188  ENI- 157  FUE- 139  GES- 118
NDE- 541  NDI- 259  REN- 185  ENG- 155  NTE- 139  ABE- 117
EIN- 519  IND- 254  EIT- 184  ION- 154  UER- 138  ERA- 117
END- 481  ERD- 248  EBE- 178  SEN- 152  ERU- 137  BEN- 116
DEN- 457  INE- 247  ENE- 175  ITI- 151  TUN- 136  MEN- 115
ICH- 453  AND- 246  LIC- 175  AUF- 149  SEI- 133  RIE- 112
TEN- 425  RDE- 239  EGE- 173  IES- 149  ESE- 132  VER- 110
UNG- 377  ENA- 214  DAS- 172  ASS- 148  ERT- 128  LAN- 109
HEN- 332  ERS- 212  ENU- 171  ENW- 148  NDA- 127  ENB- 108
UND- 331  EDE- 209  NUN- 169  ENT- 146  IED- 126  ESS- 108
GEN- 321  STE- 205  NER- 166  ERI- 143  ERN- 125  LLE- 108
ISC- 317  VER- 204  RUN- 163  EST- 142  NAU- 108  TSC- 107
ENN- 106  ERG- 106  RIT- 106  EHR- 105  CHA- 104  VON- 104
SIC- 103  IGE- 102  ITE- 101  ENZ- 100  ERB- 100  EUT- 100

Initial Trigraphs (based on 9,568 word beginnings)
EIN- 242  DAS-  79  SCH-  73  AUF-  64  DEU-  61  UNT-  57
VER- 170  BRI-  79  AUS-  69  NER-  63  GES-  60  GRO-  56
FUE-  89  DIE-  76  SEI-  68  IND-  62  GEG-  59  AUC-  55
SIC-  86  NIC-  73  STA-  65  ALL-  61  UEB-  53  POL-  52
WIR-  51

Tetragraphs (50 top based on 60,046 letters)


SCHE-398  NUND-106  NICH- 80  ATIO- 65  RSCH- 60  ENZU- 54
ISCH-317  ITIS-104  UNGD- 80  GEND- 65  EDEN- 59  ITEN- 54
CHEN-296  SICH-103  EITE- 79  TEND- 65  ERGE- 59  KRIE- 54
NDER-243  RUNG-101  DEUT- 78  EBER- 67  ESSE- 59  RIEG- 54
EINE-218  ANDE-100  FUER- 78  GEGE- 65  UNTE- 59  SDIE- 54
ENDE-216  UNGE-100  CHTE- 77  POLI- 64  EICH- 58  URCH- 53
NDIE-176  EREI- 94  EGEN- 76  SIND- 64  TLIC- 58  ALLE- 52
LICH-168  TION- 93  NEIN- 76  TUNG- 64  INER- 57  DERS- 52
ICHT-151  SEIN- 92  IESE- 75  ENSI- 64  EBEN- 56  ENWE- 52
TISC-146  IEDE- 91  ERST- 74  FUTS- 64  ENDA- 56  HABE- 52
ERDE-144  LAND- 91  RDIE- 74  LITI- 62  ENST- 56  ONEN- 52
ENDI-141  SSEN- 90  ERDI- 72  UEBE- 62  IGEN- 56  SCHI- 52
NDEN-136  BRIT- 89  STEN- 72  UTSC- 62  ONDE- 56  DEND  51
RDEN-133  DASS- 86  CHER- 71  AUCH- 62  TENS- 56  DISC- 51
ENUN-120  NTER- 86  INDI- 71  DENS- 62  EDIE- 55  ENEN- 51
ICHE-120  EDER- 83  REIN- 71  EIND- 61  ERTE- 55  NACH- 51
INDE-111  EREN- 83  DERE- 70  OLIT- 61  HREN- 55  NDAS- 51
NGEN-110  ENGE- 81  NGDE- 70  SCHA- 61  TDIE- 55  UNGS- 51
ERUN-109  ENAU- 80  ENBE- 68  SCHL- 61  ATEN- 55  ABEN- 50
DIES-108  ENIN- 80  RITI- 66  WERD- 61  DIEB- 54  NBER- 50

One-letter words: O (very rare)

Two-letter words: ZU SO ER ES DU DA IN AN IM AM UM WO OB JA




Common prefixes: BE- GE- AUF- ER- VER- HER- UN- HIN- ZU- VOR-

Common suffixes: -LICH -HEIT -KEIT -ISCH -SCHAFT --EN -ER -IG

Pecularities: C generally followed by H or K; SC invariably by H giving SCH

Common articles:

masc fem  neut plu              masc  fem   neut
   the  der  die  das  die      a, one  ein   eine  ein
of the  des  der  des  der        of a  eines einer eines
in the  dem  der  dem  den        in a  einem einer einen
by the  den  die  das  die        by a  einen eine  ein

True Diphthongs: AI AU EI EU

Consonant Rules:



    B. May appear in any position. C. Combines with other consonants. CH, CK, SCH. D. Forms gerund ending, -ende, -ende; similar to ing in English. Doubles occasionally. F. Doubles freely. G. Occasionally doubles. H. Does not form SH. J. Initial letter only. Rare. K. Doubles with CK if separated by - as in bakken L. Not followed by CK or TZ. M, N, P, R, T. Doubles freely. Q. Same as English. S. Freely doubled, forms SP ST SK not SC nor SH. SCH acts as a single consonant. V. Initial. W. Does not form Wh. X. Very infrequent. Sound of X is CHS Y. Not a final. Z. Never doubles. Follows vowels, changes to TZ. Rare as a final.





Ger-1   K1.                                  [BRASSPOUNDER]

A frequency analysis of Ger-1 yields:

G  - 20    16.1%           Try G=e.
K  - 13    10.5%           Try K=n.
J  - 10     8.1%           Try J=i.
S  -  9     7.3%
D,E - 9     7.3%
F - 7       5.6%
N,R,H - 6   4.8%
V,O,U - 5   4.0%
I - 3
P,Q,M - 2
X,Z,A,T,L - 1
B,C,W,Y - 0

1     2     3    4         5                    6
e     i         ein    e i  ni   en  e     e       e

   7       8     9           10             11
  n   n    ne    i     i  e  e   i  e        en

12  13   14      15        16        17       18       19
           en      e n      e  en    gi e   en  i       n


So the first three letters follow the German frequency table. Note we have ein. Word 19 is und? and word 1 might be es. The frequencies match. Try these substitutions.



1     2     3    4         5                    6
es    i         ein    e i  nis  en deu s  e       eu

   7       8     9           10             11
 und  n    ne    i     i  e  es  i  e   s    en

12  13   14      15        16        17       18       19
 u   s      en    u e n   s  e  en    eide   en  i s    und

deu s

A common trigram is sch. Word 20 might be deutsch. Word 1 could be es followed by gibt. Word 17 might be beide.


1     2     3    4         5                    6
es   gibt       ein    e i  nischen deutscher     teur

   7       8     9           10             11
rund  n    net   i     ittel estlic e   st  ten

12  13   14      15        16        17       18       19
 u   s      en   un e n   sprechen   beide   englisch   und


Word 18 becomes english and word 16 could be speaks in german = sprechen. (insert above)

I note that I have missed a high frequency letter pair E=a. Inserting brings three additional words.



1     2     3    4         5                    6
es   gibt    a  ein  americanischen-deutscher  amateur

   7       8     9           10             11
rund  n    net   im   mittelwestliche   staaten  am

12  13   14      15        16        17       18       19
 u   s   allen   un e n   sprechen   beide   englisch   und


The flow of the german now is clear. A little worterbuch gives us the balance of letter relationships.



1     2     3    4         5                    6
es   gibt   ja  ein  americanischen-deutscher  amateur

   7       8     9           10             11
rundfunk   netz  im   mittelwestliche   staaten  am

12  13   14      15        16        17       18       19
 u   s   allen  funkern   sprechen   beide   englisch   und


The keyword = sauerkraut.

Note the simularities to English Aristocrat solving and to English endings and words. Note the group statistics of the two languages and my comments on common threads. Do you see how this commonality flows from Figure 5-1?





Lets remove the word divisions and try a German Patristocrat.


Ger-2. Traurige Wahrheit. (zwei ewige) Eng K4     GEMINATOR

     1       2       3       4       5       6       7

     8       9      10      11      12      13      14

    15      16       17     18       19     20      21

    22     23
   RGFJM   R.

The hint tells us that the words [zwei ewige] is in the cryptogram plain text. We also know that K4 password scheme has been used. Nichols rule says ignore the descriptive part in the title as a red hering.

Start with the frequency analysis:

J - 17  15.3%   K -  5  4.5%   O - 0
M - 15  13.5%   C -  5  4.5%   A - 0
R -  9   8.1%   W -  5  4.5%   B - 0
G -  9   8.1%   E -  4  3.6%   N - 0
I -  7   6.3%   H -  3  2.7%   T - 0
Q -  7   6.3%   Z -  2  1.8%   S - 0
X -  6   5.4%   Y -  2  1.8%   V - 0
F -  6   5.4%   P -  2  1.8%   U - 0
L -  5   4.5%   D -  2  1.8%

Let J=e and note the patterns at groups 2 and 3 for the hint zwei ewige. So Z=w, D=z, M=i K=g.



1       2       3       4       5       6       7
   e gi     zwei   ewige    i ge           i e

     8       9      10      11      12      13      14
    ie e           i  e        e   i   e     i     e   i

    15      16       17     18       19     20      21
    e       i         i      g     z i     e       e  ei

    22     23
   RGFJM   R.

The G is a high frequency letter and could be S, A, or N. Try 'es gibt' in groups 1 and 2. s works, b works, t might.


1       2       3       4       5       6       7
 esgib   tzwei   ewige    i ge     s     i e s

   8       9      10      11      12      13      14
  ie e    s      i  e        e   it be     it    e   i

  15      16       17     18       19     20      21
  e s     i t     s i     tg     z i     e   b   e tei

  22     23

Now we must find the n, r and the a. R might be our n. (see last group). And QQ = mm, A long leap for C=a by frequency only - later to confirm by digrams. A short leap lets us assume W=r. Placing these guesses in temporarily, we find the following:



1       2       3       4       5       6       7
 esgib   tzwei   ewige   dinge   dasun   ivers   umund

   8       9      10      11      12      13      14
 dieme   nschl   iched   ummhe   itabe   rmitd   emuni

  15      16       17     18       19     20      21
 versu   mistd   asnic   htgan   zsich   eralb   ertei

  22     23
 nstei   n

Our digram table helps us with cipher text L and X. X is a good candidate for u and L = h is a reasonable guess, because EL = ch brings us two words. Note group 12 now gives us the W=r and I = d! A little help from the dictionary yields Y=v and P=l.

Putting the word divisions back in we have a quote by Dr. Einstein:


Es gibt zwei ewige dinge das universum und die menschliche dummheit aber mit dem universum ist das nicht ganz sicher. -- Albert Einstein.
The kewords are (facts; SAD). The plain text x is over the cipher text S for the initial position of the keying alphabets.





A small sister to cryptanalysis is the applications of traffic analysis. Traffic analysis was the forerunner to differential cryptanalysis and a primary reason for the cracking of the German Codes in WWII. {Unfortunately, the same principles worked on the British and American Codes as well.} The German Army (maybe even the German Soul) was dedicated to unquestioned organization. Paperwork and radio messages must flow to the various military units in a prescribed manner. Traffic Analysis is the branch of signal intelligence analysis which deals with the study of external characteristic of signal communications.

The information is used: 1) to effect interception, 2) to aid cryptanalysis, 3) to rate the level and value of intelligence in the absence of the specific message contents and 4) to improve the security in the communication nets. [AFM]





Allowing for differences in language and procedure signs and signals, there are six standard elements for military radio communications systems. These are: 1) call-up, 2) order of traffic, 3) transmission of traffic, 4) receipting for traffic, 5) corrections and services, and 6) signing off. [TM32]

In order to insure proper handling of messages in the field and message center, some information was sent in the clear or using simple coding. This information about routing and accounting was usually in the preamble or message postamble. This included: 1) Serial numbers, message center number, 2) Group Count, 3) File Date and Time [like a PGP signature] 4) Routing System - origin, destination and relay, (distinction is made as to action or FYI locations) 5) Priority (important stuff was originally signal flashed - hence the term FLASH message for urgent message) 6) transmission and delivery procedure, 7) addresses and signatures, 8) special instructions. As a general rule, German high-echelon traffic contained most of these items and German low-echelon traffic cut them to a minimum.

The German penchant for organization could be seen in the way they handled serial numbers. Any radio message flowing from division level to soldier in the field would have a reference serial number attached in clear or matrix cipher, by the writer, the HQ message center, the signal center or code room, the "in desk" , the transmitter, linkage, and/or operator. The routing system usually consisted of a code and syllabary that represented the location or unit. [HIN1]

An example taken from WWII U. S. Army procedure:


A45  BR6  B  STX-O-P  P-A45  BR6-T-N-A45  A-79K  011046Z
A-45-W-F2P  SLW  BR6

GR 28


BT  011046Z  K


A45 BR6  - multiple callup; receiving calls

STX-O-P -  transmitting call with precedence designation, OP=
           operational priority

P-A45  - message priority to A45 only; to others routine

BR6-T-N-A45 - BR6 to relay to all except A45

A-79K - originator of message

011046 - Date and Time Zulu used pre and postamble

A-45 -   action destination

W-F2P  SLW  BR6 - Information destinations

GR 28  Group Count.. note how small for such external
       information envelope

You can see where modern E-Mail and word processing systems have made some of this information easier to handle by the portable desk idea but traffic analysis would still apply.

American "cryptees' were adept in determining the German Order of Battle from their cryptonets (ex. from intercepts re limited distribution from corp to a theater). Traffic analysis not only gave the locations but the communication relationships between units or groups of units in the field. Some German commands were allowed latitude in their compositions of codes and ciphers. This proved to be an exploitable fault in the German security.





American success in reconstructing German communication networks was partly do to the appropriate (and sometimes lucky) analysis of the routing system. The radio station could be tied into the code group. Crib techniques included focusing on the relay point, recognizing a book message crib to several locations, correlating the address and signature cribs, tagging the operational chatter, separating the addresses, using solved messages to give outright routing assignments, syllabary solutions and changes in the system itself.

The textual features of the message gave valuable information. Tabulations of messages, text type, and volumes helped discriminate the practice and dummy traffic. Recognition of the communications net as order of battle often gave away the crypto-entity.





Traffic analysis yields information via Crib messages, Isologs and Chatter. Crib messages assume a partial knowledge of the underlying plain text through recognition of the external characteristics. Command sitrep reports, up and down German channels, were especially easy for American crypees. The origin, serial number range, the cryptonet id, report type, the file date and time, message length and error messages in the clear, gave a clear picture of the German command process. German order of battle, troop dispositions and movements were deduced by traffic analysis. [TM32]

An Isolog exists when the underlying plain text is encrypted in two different systems. They exist because of relay repetition requirements, book messages to multiple receivers (spamming would have been a definite no-no), or error by the code clerk. American crypees were particularly effective in obtaining intelligence from this method.

Traffic analysis boils down to finding the contact relationships among units, tracking their movements, building up the cryptonet authorities, capitalizing on lack of randomness in their structures, and exploiting book and relay cribs. I submit that American intelligence was quite successful in this endeavor against the Germans in WWII.






"Weh dem der leugt und Klartext funkt" - Lieutenant Jaeger German 5th Army. ["Woe to him who lies and radios in the clear"]

Jaeger was a German code expert sent to stiffen the German Code discipline in France in 1918. Ironically, the double "e" in Jaeger's name gave US Army traffic analysis experts a fix on code changes in 1918.

ADFGVX, is one of the best known field ciphers in the history of cryptology. Originally a 5 x 5 matrix of just 5 letters, ADFGX, the system was expanded on June 1, 1918 to a 6th letter V. The letters were chosen for their clarity in Morse: A .-, D -.., F ..-., G --., V ...-, and X -..-.

W. F. Friedman describes one of the first traffic analysis charts regarding battle activity from May to August, 1918 at Marne, and Rheims, France. It was based solely on the ebb and flow of traffic in the ADFGVX cipher. This cipher was restricted to German High Command communications between and among the headquarters of divisions and army corps.

The ADFGVX cipher was considered secure because it combined both a good substitution (bipartite fractionation) and an excellent transposition in one system. During the eight month history of this cipher, only 10 keys were recovered by the Allies (in 10 days of heavy traffic) and fifty percent of the messages on these days were read. These intercepts effected the reverse of the German advances (15 divisions) under Ludendorff at Montdidier and Compiegne, about 50 miles North of Paris. Solution by the famed French Captain Georges Painvin was based on just two specialized cases. No general solution for the cipher was found by the Allies. In 1933, William Friedman and the SIS found a general solution. French General Givierge, of the Deuxieme Bureau also published a solution to the general case.

The June 3 message that Painvin cracked which changed the course of WWI:

From German High Command in Remaugies: Munition-ierung beschleunigen Punkt Soweit nicut eingesehen auch bei Tag

"Rush Munitions Stop Even by day if not seen."


This told the Allies where and when the bombardment preceding the next major German push was planned.





26 letters and 10 digits of the ADFGVX were placed into a 6 x 6 Bipartite Square:


A   D   F   G   V   X

          A    F   L   1   A   O   2

          D    J   D   W   3   G   U

          F    C   I   Y   B   4   P

          G    R   5   Q   8   V   E

          V    6   K   7   Z   M   X

          X    S   N   H   0   T   9

PT:  a  l  l     q  u  i  e  t    o  n     t  h  i  s


PT:  f   r   o   n   t      t   o   d   a   y

CT:  AA  GA  AV  XD  XV     XV  AV  DD  AG  FF

The bilateral cipher which results is transposed with a keyed matrix, written in by row and removed by column.



G  E  R  M  A  N
                  3  2  6  4  1  5

                  A  G  A  D  A  D

                  G  F  D  X  F  D

                  G  X  X  V  A  V

                  X  D  X  V  X  F

                  F  D  X  A  A  A

                  G  A  A  V  X  D

                  X  V  X  V  A  V

                  D  D  A  G  F  F

and the final CT is:



Known decipherment was accomplished with the Key and possession of the original matrix. Fine and dandy but cryptanalysis in 1918, was another thing.





According to William Friedman, there were only three viable ways to attack this cipher. The first method required 2 or more messages with identical plain text beginnings to uncover the transposition. Under the second method, 2 or more messages with plain text endings were required to break the flat distribution shield of the substitution part of the cipher. The German addiction to stereotyped phraseology was so prevalent in all German military communications that in each days traffic, messages with similar endings and beginnings were found (sometimes both). The third method required messages with the exact same number of letters. Painvin used the first two methods when he cracked the 5 letter ADFGX version in April, 1918. [FRAA], [FRAB]

Lest we underestimate the difficulty of this cipher, I think we might step behind Painvin shoulders as he worked. At 4:30 am on March 21, 6000 guns opened fire on the Allied line at Somme. Five hours later, 62 German Divisions pushed forward on a 40 mile front. Radio traffic increased dramatically, Painvin had just a few intercepts in the ADFGX cipher and the longer ones had been split in three parts to prevent anagraming.

Five letters, therefore, a checkerboard? Simple mono cipher - too flat a distribution.

The German oddity of first parts of messages with identical bits and pieces of text larded in the same order in the cryptograms begin to show. Painvin feels the oddity could most likely have resulted from transposed beginnings according to the same key; the identical tops of the columns of the transposition tableau. Painvin sections the cryptograms by timeframe:


chi-110:  (1) ADXDA  (2) XGFXG  (3) DAXXGX  (4) GDADFF
  chi-114:  (1) ADXDD  (2) XGFFD  (3) DAXAGD  (4) GDGXD

He does this with 20 blocks to reconstruct the transposition key. Using the principle - long columns to the left, he finds segments 3,6,14, 18 to left. Balance clustered to right. Using other messages with common endings (repeated) He segments the columns to the left. Correctly? No. He uses 18 additional intercepts to juxtaposition 60 letters AA's, AD's, etc. Using frequency count, he finds a monoalphabetic substitution. He finds column 5-8 and 8-5 are inverted.

Painvin sets up a skeleton checkerboard - he assumes correctly the order to be side-top:


A  D  F  G  X

                  D           e

Since the message was 20 letters, the order might be side-top, repeated, meaning side coordinates would fall on 1st, 3rd, 5th.. positions during encipherment, so he separates them by frequency characteristics. In 48 hours of incredible labor, Painvin pairs the correct letters and builds the checkerboard, solving the toughest field cipher the world had yet seen. A cipher that defends itself by fractionation - the breaking up of PT letters equivalents into pieces, with the consequent dissipation of its ordinary characteristics. The transposition further scatters these characteristics in a particularly effective fashion, while dulling the clues that normally help to reconstruct a transposition.





Solve these:

Ger-3.  Kalenderblatt August.  K2 (Sonne)     BRASSPOUNDER










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[CLAR] Clark, Ronald W., 'The Man who broke Purple',
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[COLF] Collins Gem Dictionary, "French," Collins Clear Type
       Press, 1979.

[COLG] Collins Gem Dictionary, "German," Collins Clear Type
       Press, 1984.

[COLI] Collins Gem Dictionary, "Italian," Collins Clear Type
       Press, 1954.

[COLL] Collins Gem Dictionary, "Latin," Collins Clear Type
       Press, 1980.

[COLP] Collins Gem Dictionary, "Portuguese," Collins Clear Type
       Press, 1981.

[COLR] Collins Gem Dictionary, "Russian," Collins Clear Type
       Press, 1958.

[COLS] Collins Gem Dictionary, "Spanish," Collins Clear Type
       Press, 1980.

[COVT] Anonymous, "Covert Intelligence Techniques Of the Soviet
       Union, Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, Ca.  1980.

[CULL] Cullen, Charles G., "Matrices and Linear
       Transformations," 2nd Ed., Dover Advanced Mathematics
       Books, NY, 1972.

[DAGA] D'agapeyeff, Alexander, "Codes and Ciphers," Oxford
       University Press, London, 1974.

[DAN]  Daniel, Robert E., "Elementary Cryptanalysis:
       Cryptography For Fun," Cryptiquotes, Seattle, WA., 1979.

[DAVI] Da Vinci, "Solving Russian Cryptograms", The Cryptogram,
       September-October, Vol XLII, No 5. 1976.

[DEAU] Bacon, Sir Francis, "De Augmentis Scientiarum," tr. by
       Gilbert Watts, (1640) or tr. by Ellis, Spedding, and
       Heath (1857,1870).

[DEVO] Devours, Cipher A. and Louis Kruh, Machine Cryptography
       and Modern Cryptanalysis, Artech, New York, 1985.

[DOW]  Dow, Don. L., "Crypto-Mania, Version 3.0", Box 1111,
       Nashua, NH. 03061-1111, (603) 880-6472, Cost $15 for
       registered version and available as shareware under on CIS or zipnet.

[ELCY] Gaines, Helen Fouche, Cryptanalysis, Dover, New York,

[ENIG] Tyner, Clarence E. Jr., and Randall K. Nichols,
       "ENIGMA95 - A Simulation of Enhanced Enigma Cipher
       Machine on A Standard Personal Computer," for
       publication, November, 1995.

[EPST] Epstein, Sam and Beryl, "The First Book of Codes and
       Ciphers," Ambassador Books, Toronto, Canada, 1956.

[EYRA] Eyraud, Charles, "Precis de Cryptographie Moderne'"
       Paris, 1953.

[FL]   Anonymous, The Friedman Legacy: A Tribute to William and
       Elizabeth Friedman, National Security Agency, Central
       Security Service, Center for Cryptological History,1995.

[FREB] Friedman, William F., "Cryptology," The Encyclopedia
       Britannica, all editions since 1929.  A classic article
       by the greatest cryptanalyst.

[FR1]  Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D.,
       Military Cryptanalytics Part I - Volume 1, Aegean Park
       Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1985.

[FR2]  Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D.,
       Military Cryptanalytics Part I - Volume 2, Aegean Park
       Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1985.

[FR3]  Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D.,
       Military Cryptanalytics Part III, Aegean Park Press,
       Laguna Hills, CA, 1995.

[FR4]  Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D.,
       Military Cryptanalytics Part IV,  Aegean Park Press,
       Laguna Hills, CA, 1995.

[FR5]  Friedman, William F. Military Cryptanalysis - Part I,
       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1980.

[FR6]  Friedman, William F. Military Cryptanalysis - Part II,
       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1980.

[FRE]  Friedman, William F. , "Elements of Cryptanalysis,"
       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1976.

[FREA] Friedman, William F. , "Advanced Military Cryptography,"
       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1976.

[FRAA] Friedman, William F. , "American Army Field Codes in The
       American Expeditionary Forces During the First World
       War, USA 1939.

[FRAB] Friedman, W. F., Field Codes used by the German Army
       During World War. 1919.

[FR22] Friedman, William F., The Index of Coincidence and Its
       Applications In Cryptography, Publication 22, The
       Riverbank Publications,  Aegean Park Press, Laguna
       Hills, CA, 1979.

[FROM] Fromkin, V and Rodman, R., "Introduction to Language,"
       4th ed.,Holt Reinhart & Winston, New York, 1988.

[FRS]  Friedman, William F. and Elizabeth S., "The
       Shakespearean Ciphers Examined,"  Cambridge University
       Press, London, 1957.

[GARL] Garlinski, Jozef, 'The Swiss Corridor', Dent,
       London 1981.

[GAR1] Garlinski, Jozef, 'Hitler's Last Weapons',
       Methuen, London 1978.

[GERM] "German Dictionary," Hippocrene Books, Inc., New York,

[GIVI] Givierge, General Marcel, " Course In Cryptography,"
       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1978.  Also, M.
       Givierge, "Cours de Cryptographie," Berger-Levrault,
       Paris, 1925.

[GRA1] Grandpre: "Grandpre, A. de--Cryptologist. Part 1
       'Cryptographie Pratique - The Origin of the Grandpre',
       ISHCABIBEL, The Cryptogram, SO60, American Cryptogram
       Association, 1960.

[GRA2] Grandpre: "Grandpre Ciphers", ROGUE, The Cryptogram,
       SO63, American Cryptogram Association, 1963.

[GRA3] Grandpre: "Grandpre", Novice Notes, LEDGE, The
       Cryptogram, MJ75, American Cryptogram Association,1975

[GODD] Goddard, Eldridge and Thelma, "Cryptodyct," Marion,
       Iowa, 1976

[GORD] Gordon, Cyrus H., " Forgotten Scripts:  Their Ongoing
       Discovery and Decipherment,"  Basic Books, New York,

[HA]   Hahn, Karl, " Frequency of Letters", English Letter
       Usage Statistics using as a sample, "A Tale of Two
       Cities" by Charles Dickens, Usenet SCI.Crypt, 4 Aug

[HAWA] Hitchcock, H. R., "Hawaiian," Charles E. Tuttle, Co.,
       Toyko, 1968.

[HEMP] Hempfner, Philip and Tania, "Pattern Word List For
       Divided and Undivided Cryptograms," unpublished
       manuscript, 1984.

[HILL] Hill, Lester, S., "Cryptography in an Algebraic
       Alphabet", The American Mathematical Monthly, June-July

[HINS] Hinsley, F. H.,  "History of British Intelligence in the
       Second World War", Cambridge University Press,
       Cambridge, 1979-1988.

[HIN2] Hinsley, F. H.  and Alan Strip in "Codebreakers -Story
       of Bletchley Park", Oxford University Press, 1994.

[HIS1] Barker, Wayne G., "History of Codes and Ciphers in the
       U.S. Prior to World War I," Aegean Park Press, Laguna
       Hills, CA, 1978.

[HITT] Hitt, Parker, Col. " Manual for the Solution of Military
       Ciphers,"  Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1976.

[HOFF] Hoffman, Lance J., editor,  "Building In Big Brother:
       The Cryptographic Policy Debate," Springer-Verlag,
       N.Y.C., 1995. ( A useful and well balanced book of
       cryptographic resource materials. )

[HOM1] Homophonic: A Multiple Substitution Number Cipher", S-
       TUCK, The Cryptogram, DJ45, American Cryptogram
       Association, 1945.

[HOM2] Homophonic: Bilinear Substitution Cipher, Straddling,"
       ISHCABIBEL, The Cryptogram, AS48, American Cryptogram
       Association, 1948.

[HOM3] Homophonic: Computer Column:"Homophonic Solving,"
       PHOENIX, The Cryptogram, MA84, American Cryptogram
       Association, 1984.

[HOM4] Homophonic: Hocheck Cipher,", SI SI, The Cryptogram,
       JA90, American Cryptogram Association, 1990.

[HOM5] Homophonic: "Homophonic Checkerboard," GEMINATOR, The
       Cryptogram, MA90, American Cryptogram Association, 1990.

[HOM6] Homophonic: "Homophonic Number Cipher," (Novice Notes)
       LEDGE, The Cryptogram, SO71, American Cryptogram
       Association, 1971.

[IBM1] IBM Research Reports, Vol 7., No 4, IBM Research,
       Yorktown Heights, N.Y., 1971.

[INDE] PHOENIX, Index to the Cryptogram: 1932-1993, ACA, 1994.

[JAPA] Martin, S.E., "Basic Japanese Coversation Dictionary,"
       Charles E. Tuttle Co., Toyko, 1981.

[JOHN] Johnson, Brian, 'The Secret War', Arrow Books,
       London 1979.

[KAHN] Kahn, David, "The Codebreakers", Macmillian Publishing
       Co. , 1967.

[KAH1] Kahn, David, "Kahn On Codes - Secrets of the New
       Cryptology," MacMillan Co., New York, 1983.

[KAH2] Kahn, David, "An Enigma Chronology", Cryptologia Vol
       XVII,Number 3, July 1993.

[KAH3] Kahn, David, "Seizing The Enigma", Houghton Mifflin, New
       York, 1991.

[KOBL] Koblitz, Neal, " A Course in Number Theory and
       Cryptography, 2nd Ed, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994.

[KONH] Konheim, Alan G., "Cryptography -A Primer" , John Wiley,
       1981, pp 212 ff.

[KOTT] Kottack, Phillip Conrad, "Anthropology: The Exploration
       Of Human Diversity," 6th ed., Mcgraw-Hill, Inc., New
       York, N.Y.  1994.

[KOZA] Kozaczuk, Dr. Wladyslaw,  "Enigma: How the German
       Machine Cipher was Broken and How it Was Read by the
       Allies in WWI", University Pub, 1984.

[KULL] Kullback, Solomon, Statistical Methods in Cryptanalysis,
       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, Ca. 1976

[LAFF] Laffin, John, "Codes and Ciphers: Secret Writing Through
       The Ages," Abelard-Schuman, London, 1973.

[LAKE] Lakoff, R., "Language and the Womans Place," Harper &
       Row, New York, 1975.

[LANG] Langie, Andre, "Cryptography," translated from French
       by J.C.H. Macbeth, Constable and Co., London, 1922.

[LAUE] Lauer, Rudolph F.,  "Computer Simulation of Classical
       Substitution Cryptographic Systems" Aegean Park Press,
       1981, p72 ff.

[LEDG] LEDGE, "NOVICE NOTES," American Cryptogram Association,
       1994.  [ One of the best introductory texts on ciphers
       written by an expert in the field.  Not only well
       written, clear to understand but as authoritative as
       they come! ]

[LEWI] Lewin, Ronald, 'Ultra goes to War', Hutchinson,
       London 1978.

[LEWY] Lewy, Guenter, "America In Vietnam", Oxford University
       Press, New York, 1978.

[LEVI] Levine, J.,  U.S. Cryptographic Patents 1861-1981,
       Cryptologia, Terre Haute, In 1983.

[LISI] Lisicki, Tadeusz, 'Dzialania Enigmy', Orzet Biaty,
       London July-August, 1975; 'Enigma i Lacida',
       Przeglad lacznosci, London 1974- 4; 'Pogromcy
       Enigmy we Francji', Orzet Biaty, London, Sept.

[LYNC] Lynch, Frederick D., "Pattern Word List, Vol 1.,"
       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1977.

[LYSI] Lysing, Henry, aka John Leonard Nanovic, "Secret
       Writing," David Kemp Co., NY 1936.

[MANS] Mansfield, Louis C. S., "The Solution of Codes and
       Ciphers", Alexander Maclehose & Co., London, 1936.

[MARO] Marotta, Michael, E.  "The Code Book - All About
       Unbreakable Codes and How To Use Them," Loompanics
       Unlimited, 1979.  [This is a terrible book.  Badly
       written, without proper authority, unprofessional, and
       prejudicial to boot.  And, it has one of the better
       illustrations of the Soviet one-time pad with example,
       with three errors in cipher text, that I have corrected
       for the author.]

[MARS] Marshall, Alan, "Intelligence and Espionage in the Reign
       of Charles II," 1660-1665, Cambridge University, New
       York, N.Y., 1994.

[MART] Martin, James,  "Security, Accuracy and Privacy in
       Computer Systems," Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs,
       N.J., 1973.

[MAYA] Coe, M. D., "Breaking The Maya Code," Thames and Hudson,
       New York, 1992.

[MAZU] Mazur, Barry, "Questions On Decidability and
       Undecidability in Number Theory," Journal of Symbolic
       Logic, Volume 54, Number 9, June, 1994.

[MEND] Mendelsohn, Capt. C. J.,  Studies in German Diplomatic
       Codes Employed During World War, GPO, 1937.

[MILL] Millikin, Donald, " Elementary Cryptography ", NYU
       Bookstore, NY, 1943.

[MYER] Myer, Albert, "Manual of Signals," Washington, D.C.,
       USGPO, 1879.

[MM]   Meyer, C. H., and Matyas, S. M., " CRYPTOGRAPHY - A New
       Dimension in Computer Data Security, " Wiley
       Interscience, New York, 1982.

[MODE] Modelski, Tadeusz, 'The Polish Contribution to the
       Ultimate Allied Victory in the Second World War',
       Worthing (Sussex) 1986.

[NIBL] Niblack, A. P., "Proposed Day, Night and Fog Signals for
       the Navy with Brief Description of the Ardois Hight
       System," In Proceedings of the United States Naval
       Institute, Annapolis: U. S. Naval Institute, 1891.

[NIC1] Nichols, Randall K., "Xeno Data on 10 Different
       Languages," ACA-L, August 18, 1995.

[NIC2] Nichols, Randall K., "Chinese Cryptography Parts 1-3,"
       ACA-L, August 24, 1995.

[NIC3] Nichols, Randall K., "German Reduction Ciphers Parts
       1-4," ACA-L, September 15, 1995.

[NIC4] Nichols, Randall K., "Russian Cryptography Parts 1-3,"
       ACA-L, September 05, 1995.

[NIC5] Nichols, Randall K., "A Tribute to William F. Friedman",
       NCSA FORUM, August 20, 1995.

[NIC6] Nichols, Randall K., "Wallis and Rossignol,"  NCSA
       FORUM, September 25, 1995.

[NIC7] Nichols, Randall K., "Arabic Contributions to
       Cryptography,", in The Cryptogram, ND95, ACA, 1995.

[NIC8] Nichols, Randall K., "U.S. Coast Guard Shuts Down Morse
       Code System," The Cryptogram, SO95, ACA publications,

[NIC9] Nichols, Randall K., "PCP Cipher," NCSA FORUM, March 10,

[NICX] Nichols, R. K., Keynote Speech to A.C.A. Convention,
       "Breaking Ciphers in Other Languages.," New Orleans,
       La., 1993.

[NORM] Norman, Bruce, 'Secret Warfare', David & Charles,
       Newton Abbot (Devon) 1973.

[NORW] Marm, Ingvald and Sommerfelt, Alf, "Norwegian," Teach
       Yourself Books, Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1967.

[NSA]  NSA's Friedman Legacy - A Tribute to William and
       Elizabeth Friedman, NSA Center for Cryptological
       History, 1992, pp 201 ff.

[OP20] "Course in Cryptanalysis," OP-20-G', Navy Department,
       Office of Chief of Naval Operations, Washington, 1941.

[PIER] Pierce, Clayton C., "Cryptoprivacy", 325 Carol Drive,
       Ventura, Ca. 93003.

[POPE] Pope, Maurice, "The Story of Decipherment: From Egyptian
       Hieroglyphic to Linear B., Thames and Hudson Ltd., 1975.

[RAJ1] "Pattern and Non Pattern Words of 2 to 6 Letters," G &
       C.  Merriam Co., Norman, OK. 1977.

[RAJ2] "Pattern and Non Pattern Words of 7 to 8 Letters," G &
       C.  Merriam Co., Norman, OK. 1980.

[RAJ3] "Pattern and Non Pattern Words of 9 to 10 Letters," G &
       C.  Merriam Co., Norman, OK. 1981.

[RAJ4] "Non Pattern Words of 3 to 14 Letters," RAJA Books,
       Norman, OK. 1982.

[RAJ5] "Pattern and Non Pattern Words of 10 Letters," G & C.
       Merriam Co., Norman, OK. 1982.

[REJE] Rejewski, Marian, "Mathematical Solution of the Enigma
       Cipher" published in vol 6, #1, Jan 1982 Cryptologia pp

[RHEE] Rhee, Man Young, "Cryptography and Secure Commun-
       ications,"  McGraw Hill Co, 1994

[ROBO] NYPHO, The Cryptogram, Dec 1940, Feb, 1941.

[ROHE] Jurgen Roher's Comparative Analysis of Allied and Axis
       Radio-Intelligence in the Battle of the Atlantic,
       Proceedings of the 13th Military History Symposium, USAF
       Academy, 1988, pp 77-109.

[ROOM] Hyde, H. Montgomery, "Room 3603, The Story of British
       Intelligence Center in New York During World War II",
       New York, Farrar, Straus, 1963.

[ROSE] Budge, E. A. Wallis, "The Rosetta Stone," British Museum
       Press, London, 1927.

[RUNY] Runyan, T. J. and Jan M. Copes "To Die Gallently",
       Westview Press 1994, p85-86 ff.

[RYSK] Norbert Ryska and Siegfried Herda, "Kryptographische
       Verfahren in der Datenverarbeitung," Gesellschaft fur
       Informatik, Berlin, Springer-Verlag1980.

[SADL] Sadler, A. L., "The Code of the Samurai," Rutland and
       Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Co., 1969.

[SACC] Sacco, Generale Luigi, " Manuale di Crittografia",
       3rd ed., Rome, 1947.

[SAPR] Sapir, E., "Conceptual Categories in Primitive
       Language," Science: 74: 578-584., 1931.

[SASS] Sassoons, George, "Radio Hackers Code Book", Duckworth,
       London, 1986.

[SCHN] Schneier, Bruce, "Applied Cryptography: Protocols,
       Algorithms, and Source Code C," John Wiley and Sons,

[SCH2] Schneier, Bruce, "Applied Cryptography: Protocols,
       Algorithms, and Source Code C," 2nd ed., John Wiley and
       Sons, 1995.

[SCHW] Schwab, Charles, "The Equalizer," Charles Schwab, San
       Francisco, 1994.

[SHAN] Shannon, C. E., "The Communication Theory of Secrecy
       Systems," Bell System Technical Journal, Vol 28 (October

[SIG1] "International Code Of Signals For Visual, Sound, and
       Radio Communications,"  Defense Mapping Agency,
       Hydrographic/Topographic Center, United States Ed.
       Revised 1981

[SIG2] "International Code Of Signals For Visual, Sound, and
       Radio Communications,"  U. S. Naval Oceanographic
       Office, United States Ed., Pub. 102,  1969.

[SINK] Sinkov, Abraham, "Elementary Cryptanalysis", The
       Mathematical Association of America, NYU, 1966.

[SISI] Pierce, C.C., "Cryptoprivacy," Author/Publisher, Ventura
       Ca., 1995. (XOR Logic and SIGTOT teleprinters)

[SMIT] Smith, Laurence D., "Cryptography, the Science of Secret
       Writing," Dover, NY, 1943.

[SOLZ] Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr I. , "The Gulag Archipelago I-
       III, " Harper and Row, New York, N.Y., 1975.

[STEV] Stevenson, William, 'A Man Called INTREPID',
       Macmillan, London 1976.

[STIN] Stinson, D. R., "Cryptography, Theory and Practice,"
       CRC Press, London, 1995.

[STUR] Sturtevant, E. H. and Bechtel, G., "A Hittite
       Chrestomathy," Linguistic Society of American and
       University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1935.

[SUVO] Suvorov, Viktor "Inside Soviet Military Intelligence,"
       Berkley Press, New York, 1985.

[TERR] Terrett, D., "The Signal Corps: The Emergency (to
       December 1941); G. R. Thompson, et. al, The Test(
       December 1941 -  July 1943); D. Harris and G. Thompson,
       The Outcome;(Mid 1943 to 1945), Department of the Army,
       Office of the Chief of Military History, USGPO,
       Washington,1956 -1966.

[TILD] Glover, D. Beaird, Secret Ciphers of The 1876
       Presidential Election, Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills,
       Ca. 1991.

[TM32] TM 32-250, Fundamentals of Traffic Analysis (Radio
       Telegraph) Department of the Army, 1948.

[TRAD] U. S. Army Military History Institute, "Traditions of
       The Signal Corps., Washington, D.C., USGPO, 1959.

[TRIB] Anonymous, New York Tribune, Extra No. 44, "The Cipher
       Dispatches, New York, 1879.

[TRIT] Trithemius:Paul Chacornac, "Grandeur et Adversite de
       Jean Tritheme ,Paris: Editions Traditionelles, 1963.

[TUCK] Harris, Frances A., "Solving Simple Substitution
       Ciphers," ACA, 1959.

[TUCM] Tuckerman, B., "A Study of The Vigenere-Vernam Single
       and Multiple Loop Enciphering Systems," IBM Report
       RC2879, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown
       Heights, N.Y.  1970.

[VERN] Vernam, A. S.,  "Cipher Printing Telegraph Systems For
       Secret Wire and Radio Telegraphic Communications," J.
       of the IEEE, Vol 45, 109-115 (1926).

[VOGE] Vogel, Donald S., "Inside a KGB Cipher," Cryptologia,
       Vol XIV, Number 1, January 1990.

[WAL1] Wallace, Robert W. Pattern Words: Ten Letters and Eleven
       Letters in Length, Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA
       92654, 1993.

[WAL2] Wallace, Robert W. Pattern Words: Twelve Letters and
       Greater in Length, Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA
       92654, 1993.

[WATS] Watson, R. W. Seton-, ed, "The Abbot Trithemius," in
       Tudor Studies, Longmans and Green, London, 1924.

[WEL]  Welsh, Dominic, "Codes and Cryptography," Oxford Science
       Publications, New York, 1993.

[WELC] Welchman, Gordon, 'The Hut Six Story', McGraw-Hill,
       New York 1982.

[WHOR] Whorf, B. L., "A Linguistic Consideration of Thinking In
       Primitive Communities,"  In Language, Thought, and
       Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf, ed. J.
       B.  Carroll, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 65-86., 1956.

[WINT] Winterbotham, F.W., 'The Ultra Secret', Weidenfeld
       and Nicolson, London 1974.

[WOLE] Wolfe, Ramond W., "Secret Writing," McGraw Hill Books,
       NY, 1970.

[WOLF] Wolfe, Jack M., " A First Course in Cryptanalysis,"
       Brooklin College Press, NY, 1943.

[WRIX] Wrixon, Fred B. "Codes, Ciphers and Secret Languages,"
       Crown Publishers, New York, 1990.

[XEN1] PHOENIX, "Xenocrypt Handbook," American Cryptogram
       Association, 1 Pidgeon Dr., Wilbraham, MA., 01095-2603,
       for publication March, 1996.

[YARD] Yardley, Herbert, O., "The American Black Chamber,"
       Bobbs-Merrill, NY, 1931.

[ZIM]  Zim, Herbert S., "Codes and Secret Writing." William
       Morrow Co., New York, 1948.

[ZEND] Callimahos, L. D.,  Traffic Analysis and the Zendian
       Problem, Agean Park Press, 1984.  (also available
       through NSA Center for Cryptologic History)


Links to Lanakis Classical Cryptography Course, Lectures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12


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