**By
Randy Nichols (LANAKI) ** President of the American
Cryptogram Association from 1994-1996. Executive Vice
President from 1992-1994
#
CLASSICAL CRYPTOGRAPHY COURSE
BY LANAKI
March 30, 1996
Revision 0
COPYRIGHT 1996
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
LECTURE 12
POLYALPHABETIC SUBSTITUTION SYSTEMS III
CRYPTANALYSIS OF VIGGY'S EXTENDED FAMILY DECIMATION
IN DETAIL
#
##
SUMMARY
##
In Lectures 12 - 13, we continue our study of the
"Viggy" cipher family or Polyalphabetic Substitution
systems. We will cover decimation processes in detail and
investigate special solutions for periodic ciphers. The
important principle of Superimposition will be introduced.
The Resources Section has been updated with more than 50
ACA published references on these and similar systems -
focusing on the cryptanalytic attack and areas of historical
interest. Thanks to PHOENIX for his help in compiling these
sources. [INDE]
##
"INCOMING"
##
In Lecture 13, we will tackle the difficult aperiodic
polyalphabetic case and introduce auto/running key systems. We
will diagram the topics covered in Lectures 10 - 13.
Lecture 14 will be presented by LEDGE. He will cover
further Cryptarithm topics.
Lectures 15-18 will discuss the various geometric,
transposition and fractionation ciphers.
##
PORTAX CIPHER
##
We start with a difficult cousin of the PORTA described
in Lecture 11. The PORTAX uses pairs of letters as a unit for
encipherment and decipherment as apart from single letters.
A special slide is required for its operation, and a keyword is
needed.
A B C D E F G H I J K L M (stationary)
. N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ...
. C E G I H M O Q S U W Y A C E G I K M O Q S .. (sliding
. D F H J L N P R T V X Z B D F H J L N P R T .. key)
(The above slide-setting is for G-H (key) directly under the A-indicator
of the stationary alphabet.)
To encipher the digraph RE, we take the R in the upper
row of letters (stationary slide) and the E from the lower pair
of letters (sliding), and use the opposite corners of the
rectangle formed to obtain the ciphertext, or PI. However, if
the digram ER is to be enciphered, we take the E from the
stationary alphabet at the top, and the R from the sliding
alphabet at the bottom to obtain FP.
Note that if the first letter of a digraph is in the
range of A-M, the equivalent ciphertext is dependent on where
the slide is used for the key-letter; but, if the first letter
of the digraph is in the range of N-Z, then it slides along
with the paired rows of lower letters, and therefore all such
digraphs having the first letter in the N-Z are constant,
without dependent of the key. There is an exception when both
letters in the plaintext digraph are in the same column, in
which case the key letter has to be known, for letters
appearing above the needed letters are used for the ciphertext.
[BRYA]
To encipher with keyword, the plaintext is written in two
rows under it; continuing to the end of the message. When the
final group is reached, if there are not enough letters to make
it complete (an even number), add a single null.
For example, encipher the word INNOVATION using the key OFTEN :
*
A B C D E F G H I J K L M (stationary)
. N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ...
. C E G I K M O Q S U W Y A C E G I K M O Q S .. (sliding
. D F H J L N P R T V X Z B D F H J L N P R T .. key)
*
O F T E N (keyword)
---------
I N N O V
A T I O N
g w
e b
---------
S A R E F
O U N D x
u i
k e
Setting the O of the sliding pairs under the 'A' indicator of the
stationary alphabet, we encipher IA as GE (opposite corners);
then SO, continuing down the column we encipher the whole
column. We then slide the strip until E-F (key) is under the A
indicator and encipher that column.
To find the period in the PORTAX is dependent on possible
fragments of the plaintext which are known (through the N-Z
combinations produced from the unchanged relationship of
letters). Lets partially decipher the following PORTAX:
SNPOW LBAMP ISCWU OOBXC WKMAT ZKTOW JCBLN CBJGB
TAAJD IWUKW HHVZN MNUFM APBJW PCBSX JCJQX TMVUB
MDCBJ CGUGR. (90)
Assuming a period of 6:
S N P O W L
B A M P I S
n t u r natural ?
l e d s good
-----------
C W U O O B
X C W K M A
o y s
s o c ok
-----------
T Z K T O W
J C B L N C
r o s t o
n y n d s better
-----------
B J G B T A
A J D I W U
y
m
-----------
K W H H V Z
N M N U F M
t p t
s r y
-----------
A P B J W P
C B S X J C
n r o
f t e
-----------
J Q X T M V
U B M D C B
n t o n
h u n r
-----------
J C R - -
U G R
-----------
Note the NY-NDS which could be NYaNDS or NYeNDS. Look at the final
group, we find -NTON -HUN-R (hundred?) We next test the keyword
by putting T in the final position and testing the precursor
letter; A C E F H I L N O P R S and U, At the E setting, OM =
TC, making -OYST/-SOCCU with R in the next group confirming
OCCUR. The E substitution also gives us the HUNDRED. The rest of
the analysis is left for the student for credit.
##
THE NIHILIST SUBSTITUTION CIPHER
##
One of my favorite ciphers is the Nihilist Substitution
Cipher. Classified as a periodic, it employs numbers to
represent letters. Numbers are derived from a 5 x 5 Polybius
Square.
We set up a block of 25 letters and combine I/J in one cell.
Figure 12-1a
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z
So A = 11, L = 31, T = 44. (Row by Column)
The Polybius Square can be keyed. For example, using UNITED STATES OF
AMERICA and eliminating the duplicate letters, we have:
Figure 12-1b
1 2 3 4 5
1 U N I T E
2 D S A O F
3 M R C B G
4 H K L P Q
5 V W X Y Z
We can also mix it up further with a little transposition.
Use BLACKSMITH, transpose and remove the ciphertext by
columns starting at 1: B L A C K S M I T H
D E F G N O P Q R U
V W X Y Z
B D V L E W A F X C G Y K N Z S O M P I Q T R H U
The resulting square reads:
Figure 12-1c
1 2 3 4 5
1 B D V L E
2 W A X F C
3 G Y K N Z
4 S O M P I
5 Q T R H U
Figure 12-1c shows the effect of the transposition applied first.
Now the message COME AT ONCE enciphered with a keyword of TENT
(period = 4) is:
T-44 E-15 N-35 T-44
----------------------
C-13 O-34 M-32 E-16
A-11 T-44 O-34 N-33
C-13 E-15 - -
We add the key and the plaintext equivalents together to produce the
ciphertext: COME: 57 49 65 59; ATON: 55 59 67 77; CE: 57 30.
Each column represents a monoalphabetic substitution in itself,
and the reading or value of these letters is dependent on the
letters on either side of them.
##
WEAKNESSES
##
The lowest number of any key-letter which may be added to
the lowest plaintext letter is 11, with a total of 22; the
highest combination is two 55's or 10 (110). The numbers 6,7,8,
or 9, are not involved in either the tens or the one's
additions - but they may result in a sum. Cipher 22 must equal
11 plus 11; and 10 can only mean the sum of two 55's. Zero in
the one's column means that two 5's have been added. This is
also true in the ten's column. If at any time we find that a
6-7-8-9 is involved we can discard the period assumed as wrong.
What we are looking for is a number in the 1-2-3- 4-5 range
that may be added to produce first the ten's sum and then the
one's sum.
##
FINDING THE PERIOD
##
There are two ways to find the period - the short and the
long way.
##
SHORT METHOD
##
The short way of finding the period is to look for two or
more 30's. We treat them like a repeated digraph and factor the
interval between them looking for a common factor. We may also
try the same procedure with the lowest number versus the
highest number, for example the distance between two 94's or
two 26's.
##
LONG METHOD
##
The long way is to assume a 3 period and test the 1'st
and 4'th, 2'nd and 5'th, 3'rd and 6'th in the same manner as
the short method. When conflicts arise, discard the choice. We
continue with an assumption of periods 4, 5, 6, etc. and
increase the differentials between ciphertext numbers. [BRYA]
##
CRYPTANALYSIS OF THE NIHILIST
SUBSTITUTION
##
Gaines [ELCY] suggests that cracking this cipher
parallels the Viggy. The period is found through repeated
sequences, or in their absence, through repeated single
letters, yielding individual frequency counts on the several
alphabets of the period. If the arrangement of the ciphertext
follows the normal Polybius (aka Checkerboard) Square, the
frequency counts will follow the graph of the normal alphabet
less one letter. Even with the keyword mixed ciphertext
alphabet, no matter how badly mixed, the frequency counts are
parallel, the several alphabets combined follow one graph, and
can be "lined up."
Notice that the primary alphabet contains only the digits
1- 2-3-4-5. The maximum difference is 4 and addition of any
number to all of them does not change this fact. The maximum
difference between any two sums is still 4. Now the number
added during encipherment is also a number containing no digit
other than 1-2-3-4-5; thus any number found in the cryptogram
can be considered as carrying two separate additions, one for
tens and one for ones. The two 5's added give us the revealing
0; the carried digit 1 can be mentally borrowed back, by
decreasing the size of the digit preceding the zero. If we find
a 40 , we look at it as 3 tens with ten units or finding 110,
we may regard this as ten tens and ten units. If we find the
numbers 29 and 87 in the cryptogram, we know they were not
enciphered by the same key. This is because a difference
greater than 4 in the respective tens units exists and no digit
whatever added to any two digits of the original square can
produce a difference greater than 4. Say we have 30 and 77,
with no difference greater than 4, the presence of the zero
needs to be accounted for. The number 30 has 2 tens and ten
units; 7 - 2 >4, hence, we reject the same key hypothesis.
Four giveaways are 22, 30, 102, and 110. The presence of
any one of these numbers gives away the key to the whole cipher
alphabet.
[BRYA] presents a useful aid for the standard Polybius
Square in Table 12-1. At the top is the key-number, at the left
is the plaintext letter, and at ciphertext is found at the
intersection. Any two of the three variables yields the unknown
letter/number.
Table 12-1
11 12 13 14 15 21 22 23 24 25 31 32
A B C D E F G H I/J K L M
A 11 22 23 24 25 26 32 33 34 35 36 42 43
B 12 23 24 25 26 27 33 34 35 36 37 43 44
C 13 24 25 26 27 28 34 35 36 37 38 44 45
D 14 25 26 27 28 29 35 36 37 38 39 45 46
E 15 26 27 28 29 30 36 37 38 39 40 46 47
F 21 32 33 34 35 36 42 43 44 45 46 52 53
G 22 33 34 35 36 37 43 44 45 46 47 53 54
H 23 34 35 36 37 38 44 45 46 47 48 54 55
I 24 35 36 37 38 39 45 46 47 48 49 55 56
K 25 36 37 38 39 40 46 47 48 49 50 56 57
L 31 42 43 44 45 46 52 53 54 55 56 62 63
M 32 43 44 45 46 47 53 54 55 56 57 63 64
N 33 44 45 46 47 48 54 55 56 57 58 64 65
O 34 45 46 47 48 49 55 56 57 58 59 65 66
P 35 46 47 48 49 50 56 57 58 59 60 66 67
Q 41 52 53 54 55 56 62 63 64 65 66 72 73
R 42 53 54 55 56 57 63 64 65 66 67 73 74
S 43 54 55 56 57 58 64 65 66 67 68 74 75
T 44 55 56 57 58 59 65 66 67 68 69 75 76
U 45 56 57 58 59 60 66 67 68 69 70 76 77
V 51 62 63 64 65 66 72 73 74 75 76 82 83
W 52 63 64 65 66 67 73 74 75 76 77 83 84
X 53 64 65 66 67 68 74 75 76 77 78 84 85
Y 54 65 66 67 68 69 75 76 77 78 79 85 86
Z 55 66 67 68 69 70 76 77 78 79 80 86 87
Table 12-1
continued
33 34 35 41 42 43 44 45 51 52 53 54 55
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A 11 44 45 46 52 53 54 55 56 62 63 64 65 66
B 12 45 46 47 53 54 55 56 57 63 64 65 66 67
C 13 46 47 48 54 55 56 57 58 64 65 66 67 68
D 14 47 48 49 55 56 57 58 59 65 66 67 68 69
E 15 48 49 50 56 57 58 59 60 66 67 68 69 70
F 21 54 55 56 62 63 64 65 66 72 73 74 75 76
G 22 55 56 57 63 64 65 66 67 73 74 75 76 77
H 23 56 57 58 64 65 66 67 68 74 75 76 77 78
I 24 57 58 59 65 66 67 68 69 75 76 77 78 79
K 25 58 59 60 66 67 68 69 70 76 77 78 79 80
L 31 64 65 66 72 73 74 75 76 82 83 84 85 86
M 32 65 66 67 73 74 75 76 77 83 84 85 86 87
N 33 66 67 68 74 75 76 77 78 84 85 86 87 88
O 34 67 68 69 75 76 77 78 79 85 86 87 88 89
P 35 68 69 70 76 77 78 79 80 86 87 88 89 90
Q 41 74 75 76 82 83 84 85 86 92 93 94 95 96
R 42 75 76 77 83 84 85 86 87 93 94 95 96 97
S 43 76 77 78 84 85 86 87 88 94 95 96 97 98
T 44 77 78 79 85 86 87 88 89 95 96 97 98 99
U 45 78 79 80 86 87 88 89 90 96 97 98 99 00
V 51 84 85 86 92 93 94 95 96 02 03 04 05 06
W 52 85 86 87 93 94 95 96 97 03 04 05 06 07
X 53 86 87 88 94 95 96 97 98 04 05 06 07 08
Y 54 87 88 89 95 96 97 98 99 05 06 07 08 09
Z 55 88 89 90 96 97 98 99 00 06 07 08 09 10
Consider Edwin Linquist's challenge: 24 66 35 77 37 77 55 59 55 45 55 88 28 66 46
88 37 67 33 59 58 65 45 66 67 58 44 55 34 79
44 59 55 45 42 87 28 76 43 78 46 86 26 67 24
85 26 67 28 76 26 78 46 65 65 88 36 49 54 67
28 65 42 88 36 49 44 89 57 58 54 66 47 67 26
Try period = 2. Starting at the first number 24 constant we scan the
line looking for differences greater than 4 using a constant
difference of 2. We come to 33 and 38 and stop.
Try period = 3. The first comparison fails at 24 and 77.
Try period = 4. We are able to go through the entire
cryptogram, comparing numbers at an interval of 4, without
finding any difference in either tens or units greater than 4.
We now must look at the numbers collectively in columns to
verify the period is 4. We recopy the cryptogram into a block.
Key = 4?
24 66 35 77
37 77 55 59
55 45 55 88
28 66 46 88
37 67 33 59
58 65 45 66
67 58 44 55
34 79 44 59
55 45 42 87
28 76 43 78
46 86 26 67
28 76 26 78
46 65 65 88
36 49 54 67
28 65 42 88
36 49 44 89
57 58 54 65
47 67 26 -
Alphabet 1: The tens-half of the first column contains the digit 2 and
since this can only come from the addition of 1 plus 1, the only
possible key digit is 1. The units-half has a range of
4-5-6-7-8, maximum range possible. The smallest digit to result
in 8 is 3, the largest digit to result in 4 is also 3, that is
the only digit which can result in all of the digits 4-5-6-7-8
is 3, so that the cipher key for this column is 13. It cannot be
anything else.
Alphabet 2: The tens-half of the second column ranges
over the full five digits 4-5-6-7-8 (key 3), and the units-half
ranges over 5-6-7-8-9 (key 4). This suggests the key digit is
34.
Alphabet 3: The tens-half of the third column contains
the 'giveaway' digit of 2 and the units-half also contains the
digit 2. The key digit to produce this situation is 11.
Alphabet 4: The tens-half of the fourth column ranges
only over the digits 5-6-7-8, with nothing to indicate whether
the missing digit is 4 or 9. The key might be either 3 or 4.
The units has the full range of digits 5-6-7-8-9, hence key =
4. So we have either 34 o 44 for our key digit. The normal
square suggests COAO or COAT as the key word. We use Table 12-1
to good advantage and decipher this cryptogram.
We decipher the whole cryptogram a column at a time:
'C' 'O' 'A' 'T'
-- -- -- --
A M I N
I S T E
R A T T
E M P T
I N G E
U L O G
Y I N A
F U N E
R A L S
E R M O
M W E H
A V E H
E R E O
N L Y T
H E S H
E L L T
H E N U
T I S G
O N E
Reads:
A minister attempting eulogy in a funeral sermon: We have here
only the shell, the nut has gone.
For the most difficult case presenting multiple key
possibilities, we line up the alphabets graphically against
their frequency counts to eliminate the extra key digits.
##
GROMARK
##
MASTERTON describes a cipher called the GROMARK. The
Gromark is akin to the GRONSFELD in that the components never
change their position relative to each other and every plain
text values has 10 possible cipher representatives. The GROMARK
uses a different keying method; encipherment is effected by
means of a normal alphabet plain set against a mixed cipher
text alphabet. However, instead of cycles or predictable slides
of the cipher component, one finds the plain value on the top
(normal) component and counts a specified number of positions
to the right, then takes the letter in the cipher alphabet
immediately below. The choice of how far to count along the
sequence is determined by the digital key. One essentially is
adding 0 to 9 to the plain value, as in the Gronsfeld, but it
is on the mixed sequence, set underneath a plain sequence. The
key is derived from a Fibonacci series. On some cycle
(frequently 5 wide) the key is derived from a starting group,
by adding the first position to the second and placing the
result in the sixth position. Similarly, positions 2 and 3 are
added to make position number 7, 3, and 4 to make 8, and so
forth. All additions are non carrying -a very common
cryptographic practice. [MAST]
Example: Use the starter or "seed" of
48671, the key is:
48671 24383 67119 382021 ...
Solution follows the normal Viggy methods. The crib placement can be
interesting.
Example:
7 7 2 6 6 4 9 8 2 0 3 7 0 2 3 0 7 2 5 3 7 9 7
J C N W Z Y C A C J N A Y N L Q P W W S T W P
without knowing the cipher sequence, we are given the crib SUBSTITUTES
and runs somewhere from the J to the final P above.
Since the plain sequence is normal, a repeated cipher
letter, with different key letters on it, must stand for plain
values removed from each other exactly by the difference of the
two numbers. Thus C A C with keys 9 8 2 above it implies that
the first cipher C is M for example, the second C is seven
positions to the right on the plain sequence, or T.
Or: J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X
C
*
We prepare a difference table. We are looking for a favorable case where
the differences in the cipher repeats matches the plain
differences, at the correct interval. To match these
differences, we measure them in one direction for the plain and
the reverse for the cipher. Table 12-1 shows subtraction of the
left hand letter from the right, and we must look at the cipher
in the other direction. Differences may be calculated modulo 26.
Table 12-1
adjacent 19 21 2 19 20 9 20 21 20 5 19
diff's S U B S T I T U T E S
xx 2 7 17 1 15 11 1 25 11 14
x-x 9 24 18 16 0 12 0 10
x--x 0 25 7 ...
There is a difference of 7 with the C-C hit, but it doesn't appear on
the second row of the table. The keyword must first be between A
(between C's) and W. 7 7 2 6 6 4 9 8 2 0 3 7 0 2 3 0 7 2 5 3 7 9 7
J C N W Z Y C A C J N A Y N L Q P W W S T W P
S U B S T I T U T E S This is a good tip placement and
confirmed by the N-N hit. The A---A in the cipher matches the
S---T plain. We build the cipher component by writing the cipher
component, and a normal alphabet, count along it from any given
plain the number of steps given by the key, then write the
cipher value. Find S on the top strip, count 8 to right, place
an A. C is two spaces to the right of the position held by the
U, and so on. Decipher other letters by counting backwards the
number of steps given by the key. Cipher C ahead of thew crib
translates to N.
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A J Y P Q W N C L
Without a tip the system will fall to statistics. The numbers associated
with any given cipher letter represent a stretch of 10
consecutive values along a normal alphabet such as C to L or X
to G, we could prepare a table with A to Z as the rows and 9 to
0 as the columns. Frequencies can be combined and a stretch such
as PQRST area will show as the normal. The backwards normal
sequence yields a bar graph of the segment of the normal
alphabetic frequencies.
##
DECIMATION PROCESSES - FURTHER
REMARKS
##
In Lecture 11, we presented QUAGMIRES I-IV and solved
them by a variety of methods. Inherent in their solution was
Friedman's principle of indirect symmetry. [FRE7] Prima facie
to this symmetry principle is a process of alphabet
dissociation called Decimation. This same process effects all
Viggy class ciphers and is important from a theoretical point
of view. Decimation is especially effective in solving mixed
alphabet systems like the Quagmire III & IV. Decimation is
a process of selection and derivation of a sequence of
equivalent components according to some fixed interval. For
example, the sequence A E I M is derived by decimation of
extracting every fourth letter from a normal alphabet.
Consider the two mixed alphabets in a QUAGMIRE III:
O1
* *
Plain: QUESTIONABLYCDFGHJKMPRVWXZ
Cipher: QUESTIONABLYCDFGHJKMPRVWXZQUESTIONABLYCDFGHJKMPRVWXZ
* *
Ok
By setting the two sliding components against each other in the two
positions shown: A in the first set and B in the second set we
can derive two, we can derive two different sets of secondary
alphabets based on the key letters.
O1 * *
Plain: QUESTIONABLYCDFGHJKMPRVWXZ
Cipher: QUESTIONABLYCDFGHJKMPRVWXZQUESTIONABLYCDFGHJKMPRVWXZ
* *
Ok
Secondary Alphabet (1)
Plain: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Cipher: H J P R L V W X D Z Q K U G F E A S Y C B T I O M N
Secondary Alphabet (2)
Plain: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Cipher: J K R V Y W X Z F Q U M E H G S B T C D L I O N P A
Sliding strips will yield the same results as a Viggy type table based
on the Keyword QUESTIONABLY (see a partial table in Table 12-2.
Table 12-2
Partial Reconstruction
QUESTIONABLYCDFGHJKMPRVWXZ
UESTIONABLYCDFGHJKMPRVWXZQ
ESTIONABLYCDFGHJKMPRVWXZQU
STIONABLYCDFGHJKMPRVWXZQUE
TIONABLYCDFGHJKMPRVWXZQUES
IONABLYCDFGHJKMPRVWXZQUEST
ONABLYCDFGHJKMPRVWXZQUESTI
NABLYCDFGHJKMPRVWXZQUESTIO
ABLYCDFGHJKMPRVWXZQUESTION
BLYCDFGHJKMPRVWXZQUESTIONA
LYCDFGHJKMPRVWXZQUESTIONAB
YCDFGHJKMPRVWXZQUESTIONABL
CDFGHJKMPRVWXZQUESTIONABLY
. .
Superficially secondary alphabets (1) and (2) show no resemblance of
symmetry despite the fact that they were both created from the
same primary alphabet. We do find a Latent Symmetry Of Position
(aka Indirect Symmetry of Position). This phenomenon has
widespread use in the Viggy family. Consider alphabet (2):
Secondary Alphabet (2)
Plain: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Cipher: J K R V Y W X Z F Q U M E H G S B T C D L I O N P A
We construct a chain of alternating plaintext and ciphertext
equivalents, beginning at any point and continuing until the
chain is completed. We start Aplain = Jcipher, Jplain = Qcipher,
Qplain = Bcipher...., dropping the common letters we have A J Q
B. The complete sequence of letters is:
A J Q B K U L M E Y P S C R T D V I F W O G X N H Z
When slid against itself it will produce exactly the same
secondary alphabets as do the primary components based upon the
word QUESTIONABLY. For example, compare the secondary alphabets
given by the two settings of the externally different components
below: * *
Plain: QUESTIONABLYCDFGHJKMPRVWXZ
Cipher: QUESTIONABLYCDFGHJKMPRVWXZQUESTIONABLYCDFGHJKMPRVWXZ
* *
Secondary Alphabet (1)
Plain: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Cipher: J K R V Y W X Z F Q U M E H G S B T C D L I O N P A
* *
Plain: AJQBKULMEYPSCRTDVIFWOGXNHZ
Cipher: AJQBKULMEYPSCRTDVIFWOGXNHZAJQBKULMEYPSCRTDVIFWOGXNHZ
* *
Secondary Alphabet (2)
Plain: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Cipher: J K R V Y W X Z F Q U M E H G S B T C D L I O N P A
Since the sequence A J Q B K ... gives exactly the same equivalents in
the secondary alphabets as does the sequence QUEST......XZ, the
former is cryptographically equivalent to the latter sequence.
For this reason the A J Q B K .. sequence is termed an
equivalent primary component. If the real or original primary
component is a keyword mixed sequence, it is hidden or latent
within the equivalent primary sequence; it can also be made
patent by the process of decimation of the equivalent primary
component.
Friedman in [FRE7] describes the process as follows: find
three letters in the equivalent primary component that are a
likely unbroken sequence in the original primary component, and
see if the interval between the first and second is the same as
that of the second and third. Try X, Y, Z in the equivalent
primary component above. Note the sequence ..W O G X N H Z...;
the distance or interval between W X Z is three letters.
Continuing the chain by adding letters three intervals removed,
the latent original primary component is made patent.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 W
X Z Q U E S T I O N A B L Y C D F G H J K M
24 25 26
P R V
##
KEYWORD - MIXED SEQUENCE
##
We can combine the previous steps into one operation. Starting
with any pair of letters in the cipher component of the
secondary alphabets, likely to be sequent in the keyword- mixed
sequence, such as JK, the following chains of digraphs may be
produced. Thus JK plain stand over QU cipher respectively, QU
in the plain stand over BL in the cipher, respectively, etc.
Connecting the pairs:
JK>QU>BL>KM>UE>LY>MP>ES>YC>PR>ST>CD>RV>TI>DF>VW>IO>FG>WX>
ON>GH>XZ>NA>HJ>ZQ>AB>JK.....
We then unite by common letters:
JK>KM>MP>PR>RV>VW>WX>XZ>ZQ>QU>UE>ES>ST>TI>IO>ON>NA>
AB>BL>LY>YC>CD>DF>FG>GH>HJ>JK.....
or:
JKMPRVWXZ-QUESTIONABLY-CDFGH
##
HALF CHAINS
##
Only 12 /26 alphabets will yield a complete equivalent
primary component, as shown above. Even number of intervals for
sliding the alphabets will yield half chains or 13 letter
chains. Friedman [FRE7] describes several methods to combine
the half chains into fully equivalent primary components.
##
FRIEDMAN'S OBSERVATIONS
##
Friedman observed that in the case of a 26-element
component sliding against itself (both components proceeding in
the same direction), it is only the secondary alphabets
resulting from odd-interval displacements of the primary
components which permit reconstructing a single 26-letter chain
of equivalents. This is true except for the 13th interval
displacement, which acts like an even number displacement, in
that no complete chain of equivalents can be established from
the secondary alphabet. Friedman states the general rule as:
any displacement interval which has a factor in common with the
number of letters in the primary sequence will yield a
secondary alphabet from which no complete chain of 26
equivalents can be derived for the construction of a complete
equivalent primary component. Components sliding in opposite
directions act as a 13 interval displacement because of their
reciprocal nature.
Friedman concluded that whether or not a complete
equivalent primary component is derivable by decimation from an
original primary component (and if not, the lengths and numbers
of chains of letters, or incomplete components, that can be
constructed in attempts to derive such equivalent components)
will depend upon the number of letters in the original primary
component and the specific decimation interval selected. [FRE7]
Friedman constructed a table relating the number of characters
in the original primary component, decimation interval and
total number of complete sequences that can be formed. See
Table 12-3.
TABLE 12-3
Number of Characters in Original Primary Component
Decimation Interval 32 30 28 27 26 25 24 22 21 20
18 16
----------------------------------------------
2 16 15 14 27 13 25 12 11 21 10 9 8
3 32 10 28 9 26 25 8 22 7 20 6 16
4 8 15 7 27 13 25 6 11 21 5 9 4
5 32 6 28 27 26 5 24 22 21 4 18 16
6 16 5 14 9 13 25 4 11 7 10 3 8
7 32 30 4 27 26 25 24 22 3 20 18 16
8 4 15 7 27 13 25 3 11 21 5 9 2
9 32 10 28 3 26 25 8 22 7 20 2 16
10 16 3 14 27 13 5 12 11 21 2 9 8
11 32 30 28 27 26 25 24 2 21 20 18 16
12 8 5 7 9 13 25 2 11 7 5 3 4
13 32 30 28 27 2 25 24 22 21 20 18 16
14 16 15 2 27 13 25 12 11 3 10 9 8
15 32 2 28 9 26 5 8 22 7 4 6
16 2 15 7 27 13 25 3 11 21 5 9
17 32 30 28 27 26 25 24 22 21 20
18 16 5 14 3 13 25 4 11 7 10
19 32 30 28 27 26 25 24 22 21
20 8 3 7 27 13 5 6 11
21 32 10 4 9 26 25 8
22 16 15 14 27 13 25 12
23 32 30 28 27 26 25
24 4 5 7 9 13
25 32 6 28 27
26 16 15 14
27 32 10
28 8 15
29 32
30 16
Total Number
Of
Sequences 14 6 10 16 10 18 6 8 10 6 4 6
From Table 12-3, we see that in a 26-letter original primary component,
decimation interval 5 will yield a complete equivalent primary
component of 26 letters, whereas decimation intervals of 4 or 8
will yield 2 chains of 13 each. In a 24-letter component,
decimation interval 5 will also yield a complete equivalent
primary component of 24 letters, but decimation interval 4 will
yield 6 chains of 4 letters each, and decimation interval 8 will
yield 3 chains of 8 letters each.
It follows that in the case of an original primary
component in which the total number of characters is a prime
number, all decimation intervals will yield complete equivalent
primary components. Table 12-3 omits the prime number sequences
from 16-32. [FRE7]
##
SPECIAL SOLUTIONS FOR PERIODIC
CIPHERS
##
Special circumstances give rise atypical solutions of
periodic ciphers. We shall look at four special cases: 1)
isologs, 2) 'stagger', 3) long latent repetition and 4)
superimposition.
##
ISOLOGS
##
Recall that an Isolog is defined as the exact same plain text
message enciphered by two different keys in the same
cryptosystem. Lets use two monoalphabetic substitution systems
to illustrate the point. Assume two messages are intercepted
going from station A to B. B had called for a retransmit
because of some error in transmission. We suspect the messages
are the same plaintext content and they both have the same
length. We superimpose one message over the other:
1. NXGRV MPUOF ZQVCP VWERX QDZVX WXZQE TBDSP VVXJK RFZWH
2. EMLHJ FGVUB PRJNG JKWHM RAPJM KMPRW ZTAXG JJMCD HBPKY
chaining from 1 to 2: NE>EW>WK>KD>DA ......
1. ZUWLU IYVZQ FXOAR
2. PVKIV QOJPR BMUSH
Next we initiate a chain of ciphertext equivalents (reducing
the common letter) from message 1 to message 2, yielding:
*
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 N
E W K D A S X M F B T Z P G L I Q R H Y O U
* * * * *
24 25 26
V J C
With some experimentation, we find the Key word QUESTIONABLY and the
decimation interval of +5 Modulo 26. The complete 26 letter
chain was available for reconstruction, but this is not a
requirement.
Why is it possible to reconstruct the primary component
and solve the above two messages without having any plain text
at all? Since the plain text of both messages is the same, the
relative displacement of the same primary components in the
case of message 1 differs from the relative displacement of the
same primary components in message 2 by a FIXED interval.
Therefore, the distance between N and E (1st two cipher letters
of the two messages) on the primary component, regardless of
what plaintext letter these two cipher letters represent, is
the same distance between E and W (18th letters), W and K (17th
letters), and so forth. Thus this fixed interval permits the
establishing of a complete chain of letters separated by
constant intervals and this chain becomes an equivalent primary
component.
To solve, we take the frequency distributions of message 1 and
2:
E S T I O
1 1 1 2 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 1 1 3 7 4 6 1 6
1: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
E S T I O
2 3 1 1 1 1 3 4 1 7 4 1 6 1 1 7 1 4 1 1 2 3 2 1 1 1
2: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
We set up two key word mixed alphabets and slide against each other.
With some trial and error we find: NABLYCDFGHJKMPRVWXZQUESTIO
QUESTIONABLYCDFGHJKMPRVWXZ
The plain text reads:
Five squadrons must be in position by H
plus six zero two at Jackson Ridge. The same procedure is
applied on two repeating key ciphers suspected of being Isologs:
Message 1
YHYEX UBUKA PVLLT ABUVV DYSAB PCQTU
NGKFA ZEFIZ BDJEZ ALVID TROQS UHAFK
Message 2
CGSLZ QUBMN CTYBV HLQFT FLRHL MTAIQ
ZWMDQ NSDWN LCBLQ NETOC VSNZR BJNOQ
The first step is to find the length of the period. The usual method
fails for lack of long repetitions and the digraphs are not
promising. We use the Principle of Superimposition to get a hold
on the period for both cryptograms.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
Y H Y E X U B U K A P V L L T A B U V V D Y S A B P C Q T U
C G S L Z Q U B M N C T Y B V H L Q F T F L R H L M T A I Q
313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960
N G K F A Z E F I Z B D J E Z A L V I D T R O Q S U H A F K
Z W M D Q N S D W N L C B L Q N E T O C V S N Z R B J N O Q
We employ a subterfuge based upon the theory of factoring. We search for
cases of identical superimposition. We have: 4 44 6 18 30
E and E are separated by 40 letters, U, U and U which
L L Q Q Q
are separated by 12 letters. We factor these intervals as if they were
ordinary repetitions. The most frequent factor should correspond
to the period. We are dealing with Isologs. The plain text is
the same in both messages, so the principle of identity of
superimposition can only be the result of identity of
encipherments by identical cipher alphabets. The same relative
position in the keying cycle has been reached in both cases of
the identity. The distance between identical superimpositions
must be equal to or a multiple of the length of the period. The
following is the complete set of superimposed pairs:
Repetition Interval Factors
EL - EL 40 2,4,5,8,10,20 UQ - UQ -UQ 12 2,3,4,6 UB -
UB 48 2,3,4,6,,8,12,24 KM - KM 24 2,3,4,6,12 AN -AN -AN 36/12
2,3,4,6;9,12,18 VT -VT -VT 8/28 2,4; 2,4,7,14 TV - TV 36
2,3,4,6,9,12,18 AH - AH 8 2,4 BL -BL -BL 8/16 2,4,;8 SR - SR 32
2,4,8,16 FD - FD 4 2 ZN - ZN 4 2 DC - DC 8 2, 4
Only the factors 2 and 4 are common.
We discard 2 as improbable. We break up the message into groups
of four. 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234
1. YHYE XUBU KAPV LLTA BUVV DYSA BPCQ TUNG 2. CGSL ZQUB
MNCT YBVH LQFT FLRH LMTA IQZW
* * * *
1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234
1. KFAZ EFIZ BDJE ZALV IDTR OQSU HAFK
2. MDQN SDWN LCBL QNET OCVS NZRB JNOQ
We develop a decipherment Tableaux:
0 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
------------------------------------------------------
1 L F S J O M Y N I Z C Q
2 N C D G B M Z Q L
3 Q U T O W B E Z C R V F S
4 H L W Q A S B T N
------------------------------------------------------
Using the meyhods previously described, we build up the equivalent
primary component and combine our digrams. BL, DF, ES, HJ, IO, KM, LY, ON,TI, XZ, YC, ZQ.
BLYC .DF TION XZQ(U) [ES]TION(A)BLY CDF (G) H
JKM(P) (R) (V) XZ
It is not a long jump to a key word QUESTIONABLY and the equivalent
primary component: Q U E S T I O N A B L Y C D F G H J K M P R V W X Z
The fact that the original primary component was exposed was pure
chance, it could have been an equivalent primary sequence
alphabet.
From here we apply the completion of the plain-component
sequence using the high frequency letter assortments. For the
first message:
Gen Alphabet 1 Alphabet 2 Alphabet 3 Alphabet 4
1 YXKLBDBTKE 1HUALUYPUFF 5YBPTVSCNAI EUVAVAQGZZ
2 2CZMYLFLIMS 4JEBYECREGG 5CLRIWTDABO SEWBWBUHQQ
3 2DQPCYGYOPT 3KSLCSDVSHH 3DYVOXIFBLN TSXLXLEJUU
4 4FURDCHCNRI MTYDTFWTJJ 3FCWNZOGLYA ITZYZYSKEE
5 3GEVFDJDAVO PICFIGXIKK GDXAQNHYCB OIQCQCTMSS
6 2HSWGFKFBWN 4RODGOHZOMM HFZBUAJCDL 5NOUDUDIPTT
7 JTXHGMGLXA VNFHNJQNPP JGQLEBKDFY 8ANEFEFORII*
8 KIZJHPHYZB WAGJAKUARR 1KHUYSLMFGC 6BASGSGNVOO
9 MOQKJRJCQL XBHKBMEBVV 2MJECTYPGHD 5LBTHTHAWNN
10 PNUMKVKDUY ZLJMLPSLWW PKSDICRHJF YLIJIJBXAA
11 4RAEPMWMFEC QYKPYRTYXX RMTFODVJKG CYOKOKLZBB
12 3VBSRPXPGSD UCMRCVICZZ 2VPIGNFWKMH 2DCNMNMYQLL
13 4WLTVRZRHTF EDPVDWODQQ WROHAGXMPJ 2FDAPAPCUYY
14 XYIWVQVJIG 3SFRWFXNFUU XVNJBHZPRK 3GFBRBRDECC
15 ZCOXWUWKOH TGVXGZAGEE ZWAKLJQRVM 1HGLVLVFSDD
16 QDNZXEXMNJ IHWZHQBHSS QXBMYKUVWP 1JHYWYWGTFF
17 UFAQZSZPAK OJXQJULJTT UZLPCMEWXR KJCXCXHIGG
18 EGBUQTQRBM NKZUKEYKII EQYRDPSXZV MKDZDZJOHH
19 3SHLEUIUVLP 5AMQEMSCMOO SUCVFRTZQW PMFQFQKNJJ
20 6TJYSEOEWYR? 4BPUSPTDPNN TEDWGVIQUX RPGUGUMAKK
21 IKCTSNSXCV 8LRETRIFRAA* ISFXHWOUEZ 3VRHEHEPBMM
22 5OMDITATZDW? 3YVSIVOGVBB OTGZJXNESQ WVJSJSRLPP
23 NPFOIBIQFX 3CWTOWNHWLL NIHQKZASTU XWKTKTVYRR
24 5ARGNOLOUGZ? DXINXAJXYY AOJUMQBTIE ZXMIMIWCVV
25 4BVHANYNEHQ FZOAZBKZCC 5BNKEPULIOS QZPOPOXDWW
26 LWJBACASJU GQNBQLMQDD 7LAMSREYONT* UQRNRNZFXX
We choose generatrices 20/22/24; 21; 26; 7 because of the highest two
category scores. it is not much of a jump to find Alphabet 1
generatrix as alphabet 24: 1 2 3 4
A L L A
R R A N
G E M E
N T S F
O R R E
L I E F
O F Y O
U R O R
G A N I
Z A T I
From a Vigenere Square (Figure 12-1) based on the keyword QUESTIONABLY,
we find the key words SOUP for message 1 and TIME for message 2.
S O U P S O U P S O U P S O U P S O U P S O U P
----------------------------------------------------
Y H Y E X U B U K A P L L L T A B U V V D Y S A
A L L A R R A N G E M E N T S F O R R E L I E F
B P C Q T U N G K F A Z E F I Z B D J E Z A L V
O F Y O U R O R G A N I Z A T I O N H A V E B E
I D T R O Q S U H A F K
E N S U S P E N D E D X
T I M E T I M E T I M E T I M E T I M E T I M E
____________________________________________________
C G S L Z Q U B M N C T Y B V H L Q F T F L R H
A L L A R R A N G E M E N T S F O R R E L I E F
L M T A I Q Z W M D Q N S D W N L C B L Q N E T
O F Y O U R O R G A N I Z A T I O N H A V E B E
O C V S N Z R B J N O Q
E N S U S P E N D E D X
Figure 12-1
Q U E S T I O N A B L Y C D F G H J K M P R V W X Z
U E S T I O N A B L Y C D F G H J K M P R V W X Z Q
E S T I O N A B L Y C D F G H J K M P R V W X Z Q U
S T I O N A B L Y C D F G H J K M P R V W X Z Q U E
T I O N A B L Y C D F G H J K M P R V W X Z Q U E S
I O N A B L Y C D F G H J K M P R V W X Z Q U E S T
O N A B L Y C D F G H J K M P R V W X Z Q U E S T I
N A B L Y C D F G H J K M P R V W X Z Q U E S T I O
A B L Y C D F G H J K M P R V W X Z Q U E S T I O N
B L Y C D F G H J K M P R V W X Z Q U E S T I O N A
L Y C D F G H J K M P R V W X Z Q U E S T I O N A B
Y C D F G H J K M P R V W X Z Q U E S T I O N A B L
C D F G H J K M P R V W X Z Q U E S T I O N A B L Y
D F G H J K M P R V W X Z Q U E S T I O N A B L Y C
F G H J K M P R V W X Z Q U E S T I O N A B L Y C D
G H J K M P R V W X Z Q U E S T I O N A B L Y C D F
H J K M P R V W X Z Q U E S T I O N A B L Y C D F G
J K M P R V W X Z Q U E S T I O N A B L Y C D F G H
K M P R V W X Z Q U E S T I O N A B L Y C D F G H J
M P R V W X Z Q U E S T I O N A B L Y C D F G H J K
P R V W X Z Q U E S T I O N A B L Y C D F G H J K M
R V W X Z Q U E S T I O N A B L Y C D F G H J K M P
V W X Z Q U E S T I O N A B L Y C D F G H J K M P R
W X Z Q U E S T I O N A B L Y C D F G H J K M P R V
X Z Q U E S T I O N A B L Y C D F G H J K M P R V W
Z Q U E S T I O N A B L Y C D F G H J K M P R V W X
##
SOLUTION OF ISOLOGS INVOLVING THE
SAME SET OF PRIMARY COMPONENTS BUT WITH KEY WORDS OF DIFFERENT
LENGTHS
##
The example previous had two keywords the same lengths. The
Method of Superimposition works with Keywords of different
lengths. Friedman works an interesting example:
Message 1
VMYZG EAUNT PKFAY JIZMB UMYKB VFIVV
SEOAF SKXKR YWCAC ZORDO ZRDEF BLKFE
SMKSF AFEKV QURCM YZVOX VABTA YYUOA
YTDKF ENWNT DBQKU LAJLZ IOUMA BOAFS
KXQPU YMJPW QTDBT OSIYS MIYKU ROGMW
CTMZZ VMVAJ
Message 2
ZGANW IOMOA CODHA CLRLP MOQOJ EMOQU
DHXBY UQMGA UVGLQ DBSPU OABIR PWXYM
OGGFT MRHVF GWKNI VAUPF ABRVI LAQEM
ZDJXY MEDDY BOSVM PNLGX XDYDO PXBYU
QMNKY FLUYY GVPVR DNCZE KJQOR WJXRV
GDKDS XCEEC.
Both messages permit factoring at periods of 4 and 6 letters,
respectively. Superimposing the two messages and marking the
position of each letter in the corresponding period, we have:
12341 23412 34123 41234 12341 23412
No. 1 VMYZG EAUNT PKFAY JIZMB UMYKB VFIVV
No. 2 ZGANW IOMOA CODHA CLRLP MOQOJ EMOQU
12345 61234 56123 45612 34561 23456
34123 41234 12341 23412 34123 41234
No. 1 SEOAF SKXKR YWCAC ZORDO ZRDEF BLKFE
No. 2 DHXBY UQMGA UVGLQ DBSPU OABIR PWXYM
12345 61234 56123 45612 34561 23456
12341 23412 34123 41234 12341 23412
No. 1 SMKSF AFEKV QURCM YZVOX VABTA YYUOA
No. 2 OGGFT MRHVF GWKNI VAUPF ABRVI LAQEM
12345 61234 56123 45612 34561 23456
34123 41234 12341 23412 34123 41234
No. 1 YTDKF ENWNT DBQKU LAJLZ IOUMA BOAFS
No. 2 ZDJXY MEDDY BOSVM PNLGX XDYDO PXBYU
12345 61234 56123 45612 34561 23456
12341 23412 34123 41234 12341 23412
No. 1 KXQPU YMJPW QTDBT OSIYS MIYKU ROGMW
No. 2 QMNKY FLUYY GVPVR DNCZE KJQOR WJXRV
12345 61234 56123 45612 34561 23456
34123 41234
No. 1 CTMZZ VMVAJ.
No. 2 GDKDS XCEEC.
12345 61234
What is neat about this superimposition is that we can establish
secondary alphabets by distributing the letters from the 12
different superimposed pairs of numbers. The 1 - 1
superimposition is placed in the tableau at the 0 - 1 row,
column in the tableaux.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011121314151617181920212223242526
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
---------------------------------------------------
1-1 I J P D Q G C E K O R Z
2-2 H V N G U W E D M L X
3-3 E M X G I D J N R A O
4-4 X O C D K A F Y Q V N
1-5 B T W L R E M N Y U A
2-6 M O I C D U V F R
3-1 O G R L P S D Z
4-2 L P H U V E D M F
1-3 Q J V W K O X Y M A
2-4 B J X P O A F Y D
3-5 N R Y B C G Q S
4-6 M L O S U V W X
---------------------------------------------------
We construct the complete equivalent primary component:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011121314151617181920212223242526
I T K N P Z H M W B Q E U L F C S J A X R G D V O Y
Ok. We have the cipher component. Is it normal? reversed? Mixed? Same
questions for the plain component sequence. We assume that the
primary plain component is normal direct sequence. We attempt to
solve and fail. Normal reverse will also fail. We assume a K3
situation, i.e. the plain and cipher components are identical.
Again the test fails. We assume that the plain is in reverse
mode. Nope. So we have a K4 situation, both primary components
are different mixed sequences.
Message 1 transcribed into periods of four letters.
Message 1
VMYZ GEAU NTPK FAYJ IZMB UMYK BVFI VVSE
OAFS KXKR YWCA CZOR DOZR DEFB LKFE SMKS
FAFE KVQU RCMY ZVOX VABT AYYU OAYT DKFE
NWNT DBQK ULAJ LZIO UMAB OAFS KXQP UYMJ
PWQT DBTO SIYS MIYK UROG MWCT MZZV MVAJ
The Uniliteral frequency distributions for the four secondary alphabets
are shown in 1A-4A. We have the reconstructed cipher alphabet,
1B-4b shows the sequences rearranged. 1 1 1 5 2 1 1 3 2 4 2 3 1 1 2 5 3 1 1
1A A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
6 2 1 2 2 2 1 4 1 1 1 5 4 2 2 4
2A A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
4 1 2 7 1 2 3 1 3 1 4 1 1 7 2
3A A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
1 3 4 1 4 4 2 1 3 4 5 3 1 1 1 1
4A A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
1 3 2 1 1 4 1 5 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 5 3 3 1
1B I T K N P Z H M W B Q E U L F C S J A X R G D V O Y
2 1 2 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 6 2 1 5 1 2
2B I T K N P Z H M W B Q E U L F C S J A X R G D V O Y
1 1 2 1 1 2 3 1 4 7 2 1 4 3 7
3B I T K N P Z H M W B Q E U L F C S J A X R G D V O Y
1 5 4 1 1 3 4 3 4 4 1 1 3 1 1 2 1
4B I T K N P Z H M W B Q E U L F C S J A X R G D V O Y
We now shift 1B-4B for superimposition and combine the distributions.
The latter distributions may be combined so as to yield a single
monoalphabetic distribution for the entire message. In other
words, the polyalphabetic message can be converted into
monoalphabetic terms, and thereby simplifying the situation
considerably. 1 3 2 1 1 4 1 5 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 5 3 3 1
1B I T K N P Z H M W B Q E U L F C S J A X R G D V O Y
2 1 1 6 2 1 5 1 2 2 1 2 4 3 2
2B E U L F C S J A X R G D V O Y I T K N P Z H M W B Q 2 1 1
2 3 1 4 7 2 1 4 3 7
3B K N P Z H M W B Q E U L F C S J A X R G D V O Y I T
1 1 3 4 3 4 4 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 1 5 4
4B P Z H M W B Q E U L F C S J A X R G D V O Y I T K N
6 2 5 4 2 7 15 9 2 21 9 6 410 3 1 1 7 2 918 9 1
1B-4B I T K N P Z H M W B Q E U L F C S J A X R G D V O Y
combinedH M L R S O A I Y N E T
Plain
Equiv's
I have converted 2B-4B into terms of 1B. The 2 E's of 2B add to 1B I.
The two K's of alphabet 3 becomes I's and the N becomes a T, and
so forth. We solve the monoalphabetic cipher. 12341 23412 34123 41234 12341 23412
ENEMY HASCA PTURE DHILL ONETW OONEO
VDVTG ISWNZ KOFMV LIRZZ UDVOB UUDVU
URTRO OPSHA VEDUG INAND CANHO LDFOR
FMOMU UKWIS YVLFC RDSDL NSDIU ZLJUM
ANHOU RORPO SSIBL YLONG ERREQ UESTR
SDIUF MUMKU WWRPZ GZUDC VMMVA FVWOM
EINFO RCEME NTSTO PADDI TIONA LTROO
VVDJU MNVTV DOWOU KSLLR ORDUS ZOMUU
PSSHO ULDBE SENTV IAGEO RGETO WNFRE
KWWIU FZLPV WVDOY RSCVU MCVOU BDJMV
DERIC KROAD.
LVMRN XMUSL.
Having the plain text, the derivation of the plain or equivalent plain
component is straightforward. We may base the reconstruction
upon any of the secondary alphabets, since the plaintext -
ciphertext relationship is known directly, and the primary
cipher component is at hand. So: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011121314151617181920212223242526
H M P C B L . R S W . . O D U G A F Q K I Y N E T V
with Key words of STAR and OCEANS for messages 1 and 2.
##
NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT
CONDITIONS FOR SUPERIMPOSITION AND CONVERSION TO
MONOALPHABETIC TERMS
##
This example shows the power of the method of
superimposition and conversion of a polyalphabetic cipher to
monoalphabetic terms. This conversion is possible because the
sequence of letters forming the cipher component has been
reconstructed and was known, and the uniliteral distributions
for the respective secondary cipher alphabets could
theoretically be shifted to correct superimpositions for
monoalphabeticity. The data was sufficient to give proper
indications for alignment of the alphabets and relative
displacements. The chi test could also have been brought to
bear to match columns. The above constitutes the necessary and
sufficient conditions to convert theory to actuality.
##
SOLUTION OF ISOLOGS INVOLVING
DIFFERENT PAIRS OF UNKNOWN PRIMARY COMPONENTS
##
The principle of superimposition continues to work for us
even when the primary components are different, and the
repeating keys are of different lengths.
There are two general attacks. The first is a slight
modification of the procedures previously discussed. We first
factor the messages, then superimpose the messages on a width
of the least common multiple, then create a reconstruction
matrix based on the cipher values. We must limit our
observations to within the matrix, because the given messages
are different and therefore the indirect symmetry does not
extend to the 0 or assumed plain line. The wrinkle in the
fabric is we must restrict our observations to a homogeneous
set of lines, like 1-1,1-2,1-3,1-4 etc. From this data, we
reduce the reconstruction matrix to a smaller set and solve for
the equivalent primary component. It is possible to invert the
matrix so that values for the second message will yield its
equivalent primary component.
##
ARBITRARY REDUCTION METHOD
##
It is not necessary to recognize the plain text to solve a
problem involving Isologs. The next cryptanalytic attack is
applicable for many types of ciphers. The procedure exposes
latent letter relationships and reduces the imposed chaos of
the cryptogram. Given:
Message 1
BWXPS OBYII UYHLF KFSOP VGEYW PBVXO
UGJPB WDXUG HSWDH KHKHC UAYKP NFSPD
OBBYB INKFL WABOX PJXUV WKFXR WXYWS
SDYZQ ZHETA JXXZW XJROS PDEEW OJONK
GIRXR WUYDK NTJWR EVBUR DLISJ BLCKK
FODEV DYZQZ SHCTW DIEXZ
Factoring gives us periods of 4 and 5 for messages 1 and 2,
respectively. We write out the messages on a width of the least
common multiple of 20.
Message 2
JNLEJ HWUAH JHUIV YNCHC HLPKD EWZJJ
JNAHB HZBIM TUBQE FJAKM JVBEF XNCTL
FAAKV KIABG CVFNY FWBIQ GERSA TZUSD
SXBUD SHAWA YXLJD CQLED HXGZL ZWHNB
VTJSA TSUUC MIAKK JEMIY DSKGB VTJYC
XYLZE CXLSU MVMND ONFJY
12341 23412 34123 41234 20
BWXPS OBYII UYHLF KFSOP
JNLEJ HWUAH JHUIV YNCHC
12345 12345 12345 12345
A A A
12341 23412 34123 41234 40
VGEYW PBVXO UGJPB WDXUG
HLPKD EWZJJ JNAHB HZBIM
12345 12345 12345 12345
A A
12341 23412 34123 41234 60
HSWDH KHKHC UAYKP NFSPD
TUBQE FJAKM JVBEF XNCTL
12345 12345 12345 12345
A
12341 23412 34123 41234 80
OBBYB INKFL WABOX PJXUV
FAAKG KIABG CVFNY FWBIQ
12345 12345 12345 12345
A A A A
12341 23412 34123 41234 100
WQFXR WXYWS SDYZQ ZHETA
GERSA TZUSD SXBUD SHAWA
12345 12345 12345 12345
12341 23412 34123 41234 120
JXXZW XJROS PDEEW OJONK
YXLJD CQLED HXGZL ZWHNB
12345 12345 12345 12345
12341 23412 34123 41234 140
GIRXR WUYDK NTJWR EVBUR
VTJSA TSUUC MIAKK JEMIY
12345 12345 12345 12345
A A A
12341 23412 34123 41234 160
DLISJ BLCKK FODEV DYZQZ
DSKGB VTJYC XYLZE CXLSU
12345 12345 12345 12345
A
12341 23412 170
SHCTW DIEXZ
MVMND ONFJY
12345 12345
A
We arbitrarily assign the value of A(plain) as the first letter of the
plain text. Since in message 1, B(cipher)= A(plain), then every
B(cipher) in alphabet 1 must equal A(plain); these values are
entered in the table above. Also the 65th and 73rd letter of
message 1 are A(plain), this establishes that in message 2,
G(cipher) in alphabet 5 and F(cipher) in alphabet 3 are also
A(plain); we enter these values. Similarly, every J(cipher) in
alphabet 1 of message 2 equals A(plain). We continue the process
and recover all the A(plains) of the pseudo-plain text with the
resulting worksheet shown above.
We arbitrarily assign the value of B(plain) to the V(cipher) at
the 21st position of message 1. The other V(cipher) of message
number 1 establishes the E(cipher) of message 2 also as a
B(plain). This procedure of arbitrary assignments is continued
until all the cipher letters of alphabet 1 of message 1, are
placed. we are able to reduce most of the text to
monoalphabetic terms. The worksheet is as follows:
12341 23412 34123 41234 20
BWXPS OBYII UYHLF KFSOP
JNLEJ HWUAH JHUIV YNCHC
12345 12345 12345 12345
ACHDIIFCK ACCA FME D
12341 23412 34123 41234 40
VGEYW PBVXO UGJPB WDXUG
HLPKD EWZJJ JNAHB HZBIM
12345 12345 12345 12345
B CE F LI AMF F BHOAM
12341 23412 34123 41234 60
HSWDH KHKHC UAYKP NFSPD
TUBQE FJAKM JVBEF XNCTL
12345 12345 12345 12345
CEOOC D FCM AJODB MEBO
12341 23412 34123 41234 80
OBBYB INKFL WABOX PJXUV
FAAKG KIABG CVFNY FWBIQ
12345 12345 12345 12345
DGFCA IFMA OJAIH DFOA
12341 23412 34123 41234 100
WQFXR WXYWS SDYZQ ZHETA
GERSA TZUSD SXBUD SHAWA
12345 12345 12345 12345
EB EJ CHCEE LOOHE LCF J
12341 23412 34123 41234 120
JXXZW XJROS PDEEW OJONK
YXLJD CQLED HXGZL ZWHNB
12345 12345 12345 12345
FOHLE O HDE BOPFO FIIF
12341 23412 34123 41234 140
GIRXR WUYDK NTJWR EVBUR
VTJSA TSUUC MIAKK JEMIY
12345 12345 12345 12345
G EJ CACHD IIFC ABGAH
12341 23412 34123 41234 160
DLISJ BLCKK FODEV DYZQZ
DSKGB VTJYC XYLZE CXLSU
12345 12345 12345 12345
HAM F G ND HFC OOHEL
12341 23412 170
SHCTW DIEXZ
MVMND ONFJY
12345 12345
IJGIE MALH
The above table is about 85% reduced and note the
idiomorphic repetition ACHDIIFC representing Artillery becomes
patent in the reduction process. This is rather exciting. From
no patent clues to reduction and latent clues exposed. Clever.
The solution is continued by setting up sequence recon-
struction matrices for both messages. The 0 line represents the
pseudo-plain text and the values inside the matrix being cipher
text.
0 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
------------------------------------------------------
1 B V H O W J G D S R I X F K Y E
2 L Q W K S E B Z O H C X
3 U P V Q B C X N S I W
4 E W Y P X K R T A Z G D
-------------------------------------------------------
0 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
------------------------------------------------------
1 J H T F G Y V D M S C
2 S E H U W A Z I V N X
3 F U C A M L H K B G
4 I T K E S Z U N A J B Y Q
5 G F E C D B Y J A U M L
------------------------------------------------------
From the above we chain out the equivalent primary components used for
each message. Having reconstructed the cipher component for each
message, the alphabets are aligned, combined and reduced to
monoalphabetic terms. After solution of these messages, we find
message 1 is a case of direct symmetry with the cipher component
based on the keyword HYDRAULIC, and message 2 is a case of
indirect symmetry with both components being keyword-mixed
sequences based on our favorite keyword QUESTIONABLY. Friedman
points out that the keywords are prime to each other (9 vs 11).
Primality is not a necessary condition for solution based on
this procedure. [FRE7]
The method of Arbitrary Reduction is very powerful and
works in other ares besides solving periodic polyalphabetic
ciphers. It represents a workable approach where the
cryptosystem involves nonrelated, random-mixed secondary
alphabets among which no symmetry of any sort exists!
##
SOLUTION BASED ON INDIRECT
SYMMETRY OF A "STAGGER"
##
Given two messages with group counts nearly identical and
two isologous initial fragments which are identical except by
one letter (called a 'stagger') we can solve the isologous
portions of the messages and recover the primary cipher
component by the process of indirect symmetry. Transmission
garble usually creates stagger messages. Machine cipher systems
sometimes produce these when a word separator is added.
Staggers may be progressively larger as further word separators
are omitted or added.
Given: Message A
* *
ZFWAY ITBVX XWZQV PEBGS GGFIZ TUAMF
RFEQX PEPPO PCNBP QPOTX VNAIH HVRXC
NHVGM FRFSI ESQMV
*
Message B
* *
ZFWAY ITBVX XWZQV PDRKF USVAG XLJKC
NDVPR OWBRH YFJMS HRFVS BAHWG ZFAJO
JMFAV CNDVD ORZPH A
*
We note that both messages have the same 16 letter beginnings and that
message B is 1 letter longer than message A. Note that the
tetragraphs MFRF (29) and (65) are spaced 1 less letter than
CNDV at (30) and (66). The D in position 17 of message 2 is the
extra letter.
Starting from the E in position 17 of message 1, we superimpose
message one over message 2 starting at the R in position 18.
[We use a period of 6 because the tetragraph delta equals 36
which factors into 3,4,6 and 9; 6 is confirmed via the
message.]
56123456123456123456123456123456123456123456123456123456123
EBGSGGFIZTUAMFRFEQXPEPPOPCNBPQPOTXVNAIHHVRXCNHVGMFRFSIESQMV
RKFUSVAGXLJKCNDVPROWBRHYFJMSHRFVSBAHWGZFAJOJMFAVCNDVDORZPHA
0 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
------------------------------------------------------- 1-2 B F
Z M P D S X 2-3 S V F H R U L B 3-4 P S H D J A 4-5 K V O H Y R
J 5-6 W R A C F O 6-1 K J N G V W Z
------------------------------------------------------- It
is fairly easy to align properly the cipher components after the
primary cipher component or its equivalent have been recovered,
thereby expediting the reduction of the cipher into
monoalphabetic terms: Note that B(cipher) of: alphabet 2 is under E(cipher) of alphabet 1;
V(cipher) of: alphabet 3 is under F(cipher) of alphabet 2;
P(cipher) of: alphabet 4 is under E(cipher) of alphabet 1.
From this point on solution follows the normal path of reconstruction,
keyword recovery and combination of alphabets, reduction to
monoalphabetic terms and solution by frequency analysis.
##
LONG LATENT REPETITIONS
##
The stagger procedure applies to a periodic cryptogram
which contains a long passage repeated in its plain text, the
second occurrence occurring at a point in the keying cycle
different from the first occurrence. If the passage is long
enough, the equivalencies from the two corresponding sequences
may be chained together to yield an equivalent primary
component. In effect, we by-pass the solution by frequency
analysis or making assumptions in the plain text of a
polygraphic cipher.
##
FINAL REMARKS REGARDING SOLUTION
BY SUPERIMPOSITION
##
In solving an ordinary repeating-key cipher the first
step, ascertaining the length of the period, is a relatively
minor consideration. It paves the way for the second step,
which consists of allocating the letters of the cryptogram into
individual monoalphabetic distributions. The third step is to
solve these distributions. The text is transcribed into its
periods and written out in successive lines corresponding to
the length of the period. The columns of letters as a series
belong to the same monoalphabet.
We also can see the letters as transcribed into
superimposed periods; in such a case the letters in each column
have undergone the same kind of treatment by the same elements
(plain and cipher components of the cipher alphabet.)
If we have a case of a very long repeating key and a
short message ( few cycles in the text) we have a difficult
problem. But supposing there were several short cryptograms
enciphered by the same key, each message beginning at identical
starting points in the key. We can superimpose these messages
"in flush depth" or "head on" and know that
1) the letters in the columns belong to the same individual
alphabets, 2) and that if there are enough messages (about
25-30 in English), then the frequency distributions applicable
to the successive columns of text can be solved - without
knowing the length of the key. Any difficulties that may have
arisen because we were not able to factor the problem correctly
are circumvented. The second step of the normal solution to the
problem is by-passed. The assumption of probable initial words
of messages and stereotyped beginnings is a powerful method of
attack in such situations. Since the superimposed texts in
these cases comprise only the beginnings of messages,
assumptions of probable words are more easily made than when
words are sought in the interior of the messages. Some common
introductory words are REQUEST, REFER, ENEMY, WHAT, WHEN, and
SEND. High frequency initial digraphs will manifest themselves
in the first two columns of the superimposed diagram. The high
frequency RE diagram manifests itself in such words as REQUEST,
REQUIRE, REFERENCE, REFERRING, REQUISITIONS, REPEAT, RECOMMEND,
REPORT, RECONNAISSANCE, REINFORCEMENTS and perhaps REGIMENT. (I
assume the military text here.)
This same superimposition principle applies even if the
messages start at different initial points, providing the
messages can be correctly superimposed, so that the letters
which fall in one column really belong to one cipher alphabet.
The superimposed messages are said to be "in depth."
The chi test may be used to advantage in finding and combining
columns of the superimposed diagram which were enciphered by
identical keys, thus assisting in the analysis of frequencies
of larger samples than were available before the amalgamation.
[FRE7]
##
CONCLUSION
##
In summary, we have seen that the chaining process
between cipher texts applies to the latent characteristics of
the cipher components, regardless of the identity of the plain
components and regardless whether direct or indirect symmetry
is involved in the cryptosystems. The principle of super-
imposition ranks as one of the most important principles of
cryptanalysis. A pretty impressive tool.
##
LECTURE
11 SOLUTIONS
##
Thanks to BOZOL for the quick response and correct too!
11.1 Vigenere. Key= SLEEP. "Any reputable physician will
agree..
11.2 Beaufort. Key = SILENCE. "Although every one may not
subscribe to ..
11.3 Variant. Key = IMPSHGXW (HINSNOTI). Because of the
many pressures... [the correct key is SOLITUDE]
11.4 GRONSFELD. 6-3-8-4-0. "Too much discussion, especially..
11.5 BEAUFORT. Key = OCCUPATION. "Almost every man has a
job, many find..
BOZOL reports that the tip did not help him and that the
first pass at the key was ORCUPATMON which he mystically
came up with organization.
##
LECTURE
12 PROBLEMS
##
12.1 Nihilist Substitution
74 46 66 44 79 47 45 37 58 66 37 60 25 54 33 69 78 35 68 27
47 36 28 88 36 60 33 48 43 29 87 35 49 57 76 37 37 88 36 60
33 77 74 50 86 55 47 27 76 45 40 55 56 58 66 78 57 30 94 58
38 26 55 57 59 88 56 79 46 46 66 60 58 55 48 56. (DGGLWLRQ,
ends WXEOIW)
12.2 Nihilist Substitution
38 76 54 76 64 76 76 54 74 55 35 76 77 76 47 58 76 85 74 44
65 88 63 74 47 36 95 74 63 44 37 58 57 96 65 36 66 85 74 63
55 79 53 67 57 56 58 64 67 67 56 67 57 74 55 55 57 86 03 43
46 67 73 96 67 39. (ETARVQITCO, ends HSMX)
12.3 PORTA
QLAMU CHQGO FTESV XKEWC GMXPH
UCLUS WSGXT EVURH TMTSU TKVSQ GCQCW
LHMDX NUFUE EFXRF XPHUN RGPKC OXULB
BBCUS IBBHW. (HAVE)
12.4 PORTA
XFXYW ZJICZ IBUZN HJXEA ACWBE
JOOCZ UPXFQ BXHFI CGMAZ KVQEG BBCAF
KLLXF BVOUN TSAYZ KKXLR CWAJC LVVVI
XNBFQ JVWBW BSWEY VUNGX ODFRZ PTEWO
PJQNH WZPNA YRCLV YYWCQ ULOJB VK. (GSRWXERX)
12.5 PORTAX
UXCUD ZMVBA FWWPV DIKDO JISMA
WRBBA YLOYX AKUXR JGDCJ MYAPV RJWJA
DMUKL KLUAM KAOEN YBFCC IQGFK QZAA. (PQXKEG)
12.6 PORTAX
WWQPE JBDTM TMNWH CTJSW WKIAC
BJKWL YHBYN OAKRZ PDYZM DIVGB QKNJP
RNSRU FXWMU TKMJS KDNLW WFHKR JSCVF
HTJIS JD. (UHDOLCH)
12.7 GROMARK
HPMZU IBQHI SDHHH JKUNC OYJSC
24106
RBLOF REXTG EXAZA ILAXX XHFNH CDUYQ
YUOMQ NVOIN XYMBR WAHNT FGPFB DOOMA
CWHDH JXTTX CJIUR PVMZR EILDZ QJJTT
ILNNP TREVL BQLL. ( tip: UCAUKYKUJK; ends tivpw.)
##
REFERENCES / RESOURCES
##
####
[updated 30 May 1996]
####
[ACA] ACA and You, "Handbook For Members of the American
Cryptogram Association," ACA publications, 1995.
[ACA1] Anonymous, "The ACA and You - Handbook For Secure
Communications", American Cryptogram Association,
1994.
[ACM] Association For Computing Machinery, "Codes, Keys and
Conflicts: Issues in U.S. Crypto Policy," Report of a
Special Panel of ACM U. S. Public Policy Committee
(USACM), June 1994.
[ADFG] ASTROLABE, "ADFGVX Cipher - The German Field Cipher of
1918," AS53, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram
Association, 1953.
[AFM] - 100-80, Traffic Analysis, Department of the Air
Force, 1946.
[ALAN] Turing, Alan, "The Enigma", by A. Hodges. Simon and
Schuster, 1983.
[ALBA] Alberti, "Treatise De Cifris," Meister Papstlichen,
Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1963.
[ALEX] Alexander, D. A., "Secret codes and Decoding," Padell
Book Co., New York, 1945.
[ALGE] MINIMAX, "Introduction To Algebraic Cryptography,"
FM51, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association,
1951.
[ALKA] al-Kadi, Ibrahim A., Origins of Cryptology: The Arab
Contributions, Cryptologia, Vol XVI, No. 2, April
1992, pp. 97-127.
[ALP1] PICCOLA, "Lining Up the Alphabets," AM37, The
Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1937.
[ALP2] PICCOLA, "Recovering a Primary Number Alphabet," JJ37,
The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1937.
[ALP3] CLEAR SKIES, "Method For Recovering Alphabets," AM46,
The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1946.
[ALP4] PICCOLA, "Lining Up the Alphabets," AM37, The
Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1937.
[ALP5] MACHIAVELLI,"Recovery of Incomplete Cipher Alphabets,"
SO78, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association,
1978.
[ALP6] BOZO,"Recovery of Primary Alphabets I," JJ35, The
Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1935.
[ALP7] BOZO,"Recovery of Primary Alphabets II," AS35, The
Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1935.
[ALP8] ZYZZ,"Sinkov - Frequency-Matching," JA93, The
Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1993.
[AMS1] RED E RASER,"AMSCO," ON51, The Cryptogram, American
Cryptogram Association, 1951.
[AMS2] PHOENIX,"Computer Column: Amsco Encipherment," SO84,
The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1984.
[AMS3] PHOENIX,"Computer Column: Amsco Decipherment," MA85,
The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1985.
[AMS4] PHOENIX,"Computer Column: Amsco Decipherment," MJ85,
The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1985.
[AMS5] PHOENIX,"Computer Column: Amsco Decipherment," JA85,
The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1985.
[AND1] Andree, Josephine, "Chips from the Math Log," Mu Alpha
Theta, 1966.
[AND2] Andree, Josephine, "More Chips from the Math Log," Mu
Alpha Theta, 1970.
[AND3] Andree, Josephine, "Lines from the O.U. Mathematics
Letter," Vols. I,II,III, Mu Alpha Theta, 1971, 1971,
1971.
[AND4] Andree, Josephine and Richard V., "RAJA Books: a
Puzzle Potpourri," RAJA, 1976.
[AND5] Andree, Josephine and Richard V., "Preliminary
Instructors Manual for Solving Ciphers," Project
CRYPTO, Univ of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, 1977.
[AND6] Andree, Josephine and Richard V., "Teachers Handbook
For Problem Solving and Logical Thinking," Project
CRYPTO, Univ of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, 1979.
[AND7] Andree, Josephine and Richard V., "Preliminary
Instructors Manual for Cryptarithms," Project CRYPTO,
Univ of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, 1976.
[AND8] Andree, Josephine and Richard V., "Sophisticated
Ciphers: Problem Solving and Logical Thinking,"
Project CRYPTO, Univ of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, 1978.
[AND9] Andree, Josephine and Richard V., "Logic Unlocs
Puzzles," Project CRYPTO, Univ of Oklahoma, Norman,
OK, 1979.
[ANDR] Andrew, Christopher, 'Secret Service', Heinemann,
London 1985.
[ANK1] Andreassen, Karl, "Cryptology and the Personal
Computer, with Programming in Basic," Aegean Park
Press, 1986.
[ANK2] Andreassen, Karl, "Computer Cryptology, Beyond Decoder
Rings," Prentice-Hall 1988.
[ANNA] Anonymous., "The History of the International Code.",
Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute,
1934.
[ANN1] Anonymous., " Speech and Facsimile Scrambling and
Decoding," Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1981.
[ARI1] OZ,"The Construction of Medium - Difficulty
Aristocrats," MA92, The Cryptogram, American
Cryptogram Association, 1992.
[ARI2] HELCRYPT,"Use of Consonant Sequences for Aristocrats,"
ON51, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association,
1951.
[ARI3] HELCRYPT,"Use of Tri-Vowel Sequences for Aristocrats,"
JJ52, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association,
1952.
[ARI4] AB STRUSE, "Equifrequency Crypts," JF74, The
Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1974.
[ARI5] HOMO SAPIENS,"End-letter Count for Aristocrats," FM45,
The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1945.
[ARI6] S-Tuck, "Aristocrat Affixes," ON45, The Cryptogram,
American Cryptogram Association, 1945.
[ASA ] "The Origin and Development of the Army Security
Agency 1917 -1947," Aegean Park Press, 1978.
[ASHT] Ashton, Christina, "Codes and Ciphers: Hundreds of
Unusual and Secret Ways to Send Messages," Betterway
Books, 1988.
[ASIR] Anonymous, Enigma and Other Machines, Air Scientific
Institute Report, 1976.
[AUG1] D. A. August, "Cryptography and Exploitation of
Chinese Manual Cryptosystems - Part I:The Encoding
Problem", Cryptologia, Vol XIII, No. 4, October 1989.
[AUG2] D. A. August, "Cryptography and Exploitation of
Chinese Manual Cryptosystems - Part II:The Encrypting
Problem", Cryptologia, Vol XIV, No. 1, August 1990.
[AUT1] PICCOLA,"Autokey Encipherment,"DJ36, The Cryptogram,
American Cryptogram Association, 1936.
[AUT2] PICCOLA,"More about Autokeys,"FM37, The Cryptogram,
American Cryptogram Association, 1937.
[AUT3] ISKANDER,"Converting an Autokey to a Periodic," "JJ50,
The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1950.
[BAC1] SHMOO,"Quicker Baconian Solutions," ND80, The
Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1980.
[BAC2] XERXES,"Sir Francis Bacon Cipher," AS36, The
Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1936.
[BAC3] AB STRUSE,"Solving a Baconian," JJ48, The Cryptogram,
American Cryptogram Association, 1948.
[BAC4] B.NATURAL,"Tri-Bac Cipher," JA69, The Cryptogram,
American Cryptogram Association, 1969.
[BAC5] annonomous,"Numerical Baconian," JF62, The Cryptogram,
American Cryptogram Association, 1962.
[BAC6] FIDDLE,"Extended Baconian," SO69, The Cryptogram,
American Cryptogram Association, 1969.
[BADE] Badeau, J. S. et. al., The Genius of Arab
Civilization: Source of Renaissance. Second Edition.
Cambridge: MIT Press. 1983.
[BAMF] Bamford, James, "The Puzzle Palace: A Report on
America's Most Secret Agency," Boston, Houghton
Mifflin, 1982.
[BARB] Barber, F. J. W., "Archaeological Decipherment: A
Handbook," Princeton University Press, 1974.
[B201] Barker, Wayne G., "Cryptanalysis of The Simple
Substitution Cipher with Word Divisions," Course #201,
Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA. 1982.
[BALL] Ball, W. W. R., Mathematical Recreations and Essays,
London, 1928.
[BAR1] Barker, Wayne G., "Course No 201, Cryptanalysis of The
Simple Substitution Cipher with Word Divisions,"
Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA. 1975.
[BAR2] Barker, W., ed., History of Codes and Ciphers in the
U.S. During the Period between World Wars, Part II,
1930 - 1939., Aegean Park Press, 1990.
[BAR3] Barker, Wayne G., "Cryptanalysis of the Hagelin
Cryptograph, Aegean Park Press, 1977.
[BAR4] Barker, Wayne G., "Cryptanalysis of the Enciphered
Code Problem - Where Additive Method of Encipherment
Has Been Used," Aegean Park Press, 1979.
[BAR5] Barker, W., ed., History of Codes and Ciphers in the
U.S. Prior To World War I," Aegean Park Press, 1978.
[BAR6] Barker, W., " Cryptanalysis of Shift-Register
Generated Stream Cipher Systems," Aegean Park Press,
1984.
[BAR7] Barker, W., ed., History of Codes and Ciphers in the
U.S. During the Period between World Wars, Part I,
1919-1929, Aegean Park Press, 1979.
[BAR8] Barker, W., ed., History of Codes and Ciphers in the
U.S. During World War I, Aegean Park Press, 1979.
[BARK] Barker, Wayne G., "Cryptanalysis of The Simple
Substitution Cipher with Word Divisions," Aegean Park
Press, Laguna Hills, CA. 1973.
[BARR] Barron, John, '"KGB: The Secret Work Of Soviet
Agents," Bantom Books, New York, 1981.
[BAUD] Baudouin, Captain Roger, "Elements de Cryptographie,"
Paris, 1939.
[BAZE] Bazeries, M. le Capitaine, " Cryptograph a 20
rondelles-alphabets," Compte rendu de la 20e session
de l' Association Francaise pour l'Advancement des
Scienses, Paris: Au secretariat de l' Association,
1892.
[BEA1] S-TUCK, "Beaufort Auto-key," JJ46, The Cryptogram,
American Cryptogram Association, 1946.
[BEA2] PICCOLA, "Beaufort Ciphers," JJ36, The Cryptogram,
American Cryptogram Association, 1936.
[BEA3] LEDGE, "Beaufort Fundamentals (Novice Notes)," ND71,
The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1971.
[BEA4] SI SI, "Comparative Analysis of the Vigenere, Beaufort
and Variant Ciphers," JA80, The Cryptogram, American
Cryptogram Association, 1980.
[BEA5] O'PSHAW, "Porta, A special Case of Beaufort," MA91,
The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1991.
[BECK] Becket, Henry, S. A., "The Dictionary of Espionage:
Spookspeak into English," Stein and Day, 1986.
[BEES] Beesley, P., "Very Special Intelligence", Doubleday,
New York, 1977.
[BENN] Bennett, William, R. Jr., "Introduction to Computer
Applications for Non-Science Students," Prentice-Hall,
1976. (Interesting section on monkeys and historical
cryptography)
[BIGR] PICCOLA, "Use of Bigram Tests" AS38, The Cryptogram,
American Cryptogram Association, 1938.
[BLK] Blackstock, Paul W. and Frank L Schaf, Jr.,
"Intelligence, Espionage, Counterespionage and Covert
Operations," Gale Research Co., Detroit, MI., 1978.
[BLOC] Bloch, Gilbert and Ralph Erskine, "Exploit the Double
Encipherment Flaw in Enigma", Cryptologia, vol 10, #3,
July 1986, p134 ff. (29)
[BLUE] Bearden, Bill, "The Bluejacket's Manual, 20th ed.,
Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute, 1978.
[BODY] Brown, Anthony - Cave, "Bodyguard of Lies", Harper and
Row, New York, 1975.
[BOLI] Bolinger, D. and Sears, D., "Aspects of Language,"
3rd ed., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich,Inc., New York,
1981.
[BOSW] Bosworth, Bruce, "Codes, Ciphers and Computers: An
Introduction to Information Security," Hayden Books,
Rochelle Park, NJ, 1990.
[BOWE] Bowers, William Maxwell, "The Bifid Cipher, Practical
Cryptanalysis, II, ACA, 1960.
[BOW1] Bowers, William Maxwell, "The Trifid Cipher,"
Practical Cryptanalysis, III, ACA, 1961.
[BOW2] Bowers, William Maxwell, "The Digraphic Substitution,"
Practical Cryptanalysis, I, ACA, 1960.
[BOW3] Bowers, William Maxwell, "Cryptographic ABC'S:
Substitution and Transposition Ciphers," Practical
Cryptanalysis, IV, ACA, 1967.
[BOWN] Bowen, Russell J., "Scholar's Guide to Intelligence
Literature: Bibliography of the Russell J. Bowen
Collection," National Intelligence Study Center,
Frederick, MD, 1983.
[BP82] Beker, H., and Piper, F., " Cipher Systems, The
Protection of Communications", John Wiley and Sons,
NY, 1982.
[BRAS] Brasspounder, "Language Data - German," MA89, The
Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1989.
[BREN] Brennecke, J., "Die Wennde im U-Boote-Krieg:Ursachen
und Folgren 1939 - 1943," Herford, Koehler, 1984.
[BROO] Brook, Maxey, "150 Puzzles in Cryptarithmetic,"
Dover, 1963.
[BROW] Brownell, George, A. "The Origin and Development of
the National Security Agency, Aegean Park Press, 1981.
[BRIG] Brigman,Clarence S., "Edgar Allan Poe's Contribution
to Alexander's Weekly Messenger," Davis Press, 1943.
[BRIT] Anonymous, "British Army Manual of Cryptography",
HMF, 1914.
[BROG] Broglie, Duc de, Le Secret du roi: Correspondance
secrete de Louis XV avec ses agents diplomatiques
1752-1774, 3rd ed. Paris, Calmann Levy, 1879.
[BRYA] Bryan, William G., "Practical Cryptanalysis - Periodic
Ciphers -Miscellaneous", Vol 5, American Cryptogram
Association, 1967.
[BUGS] Anonymous, "Bugs and Electronic Surveillance," Desert
Publications, 1976.
[BUON] Buonafalce, Augusto, "Giovan Battista Bellaso E Le Sue
Cifre Polialfabetiche," Milano, 1990
[BURL] Burling, R., "Man's Many Voices: Language in Its
Cultural Context," Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York,
1970.
[BWO] "Manual of Cryptography," British War Office, Aegean
Park Press, Laguna Hills, Ca. 1989. reproduction 1914.
[CAND] Candela, Rosario, "Isomorphism and its Application in
Cryptanalytics, Cardanus Press, NYC 1946.
[CAR1] Carlisle, Sheila. Pattern Words: Three to Eight
Letters in Length, Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA
92654, 1986.
[CAR2] Carlisle, Sheila. Pattern Words: Nine Letters in
Length, Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA 92654,
1986.
[CASE] Casey, William, 'The Secret War Against Hitler',
Simon & Schuster, London 1989.
[CCF] Foster, C. C., "Cryptanalysis for Microcomputers",
Hayden Books, Rochelle Park, NJ, 1990.
[CHEC] CHECHEM,"On the Need for a Frequency Counter," AM48,
The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1948.
[CHOI] Interview with Grand Master Sin Il Choi.,9th DAN, June
25, 1995.
[CHOM] Chomsky, Norm, "Syntactic Structures," The Hague:
Mouton, 1957.
[CHUN] Chungkuo Ti-erh Lishih Tangankuan, ed "K'ang-Jih
chengmien chanch'ang," Chiangsu Kuchi Ch'upansheh,
1987., pp. 993-1026.
[CI] FM 34-60, Counterintelligence, Department of the Army,
February 1990.
[CONS] S-TUCK and BAROKO, "Consonant-Line and Vowel-Line
Methods," MA92, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram
Association, 1992.
[CONT] F.R.CARTER,"Chart Showing Normal Contact Percentages,"
AM53, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association,
1953.
[CON1] S-TUCK."Table of Initial and Second-Letter Contacts,"
DJ43, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association,
1943.
[COUR] Courville, Joseph B., "Manual For Cryptanalysis Of The
Columnar Double Transposition Cipher, by Courville
Associates., South Gate, CA, 1986.
[CLAR] Clark, Ronald W., 'The Man who broke Purple',
Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London 1977.
[COLF] Collins Gem Dictionary, "French," Collins Clear Type
Press, 1979.
[COLG] Collins Gem Dictionary, "German," Collins Clear Type
Press, 1984.
[COLI] Collins Gem Dictionary, "Italian," Collins Clear Type
Press, 1954.
[COLL] Collins Gem Dictionary, "Latin," Collins Clear Type
Press, 1980.
[COLP] Collins Gem Dictionary, "Portuguese," Collins Clear
Type Press, 1981.
[COLR] Collins Gem Dictionary, "Russian," Collins Clear Type
Press, 1958.
[COLS] Collins Gem Dictionary, "Spanish," Collins Clear Type
Press, 1980.
[COPP] Coppersmith, Don.,"IBM Journal of Research and
Development 38, 1994.
[COVT] Anonymous, "Covert Intelligence Techniques Of the
Soviet Union, Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, Ca.
1980.
[CREM] Cremer, Peter E.," U-Boat Commander: A Periscope View
of The Battle of The Atlantic," New York, Berkley,
1986.
[CRYP] "Selected Cryptograms From PennyPress," Penny Press,
Inc., Norwalk, CO., 1985.
[CRY1] NYPHO'S ROBOT, "Cryptometry Simplified," DJ40, FM41,
AM41, The Cryptogram, published by the American
Cryptogram Association, 1940, 1941, 1941.
[CRY2] AB STRUSE, "Non-Ideomorphic Solutions," AM51, The
Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram
Association, 1951.
[CRY3] MINIMAX, "Problems in Cryptanalysis - A Transposition
that cannot be Anagrammed," MA60, The Cryptogram,
published by the American Cryptogram Association,
1960.
[CRY4] FAUSTUS, "Science of Cryptanalysis," AS32, The
Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram
Association, 1932.
[CRY5] FAUSTUS, "Science of Cryptanalysis,The " JA91, The
Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram
Association, 1991.
[CRY6] BEAU NED, "Semi-Systems in Crypt-Cracking," FM36, The
Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram
Association, 1936.
[CRY7] Y.NOTT, "Systems Of Systems," ON35, The Cryptogram,
published by the American Cryptogram Association,
1935.
[CULL] Cullen, Charles G., "Matrices and Linear
Transformations," 2nd Ed., Dover Advanced Mathematics
Books, NY, 1972.
[CUNE] CHECHACO, "The Decipherment of Cuneiform," JJ33, The
Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram
Association, 1933.
[DAGA] D'agapeyeff, Alexander, "Codes and Ciphers," Oxford
University Press, London, 1974.
[DALT] Dalton, Leroy, "Topics for Math Clubs," National
Council of Teachers and Mu Alpha Theta, 1973.
[DAN] Daniel, Robert E., "Elementary Cryptanalysis:
Cryptography For Fun," Cryptiquotes, Seattle, WA.,
1979.
[DAVI] Da Vinci, "Solving Russian Cryptograms", The
Cryptogram, September-October, Vol XLII, No 5. 1976.
[DEAC] Deacon, R., "The Chinese Secret Service," Taplinger,
New York, 1974.
[DEAU] Bacon, Sir Francis, "De Augmentis Scientiarum," tr. by
Gilbert Watts, (1640) or tr. by Ellis, Spedding, and
Heath (1857,1870).
[DELA] Delastelle, F., Cryptographie nouvelle, Maire of
Saint-Malo, P. Dubreuil, Paris, 1893.
[DENN] Denning, Dorothy E. R.," Cryptography and Data
Security," Reading: Addison Wesley, 1983.
[DEVO] Deavours, Cipher A. and Louis Kruh, Machine
Cryptography and Modern Cryptanalysis, Artech, New
York, 1985.
[DEV1] Deavours, C. A., "Breakthrough '32: The Polish
Solution of the ENIGMA," Aegean Park Press, Laguna
Hills, CA, 1988.
[DEV2] Deavours, C. A. and Reeds, J.,"The ENIGMA,"
CRYPTOLOGIA, Vol I No 4, Oct. 1977.
[DEV3] Deavours, C. A.,"Analysis of the Herbern Cryptograph
using Isomorphs," CRYPTOLOGIA, Vol I No 2, April,
1977.
[DEV4] Deavours, C. A., "Cryptographic Programs for the IBM
PC," Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1989.
[DIFF] Diffie, Whitfield," The First Ten Years of Public Key
Cryptography," Proceedings of the IEEE 76 (1988): 560-
76.
[DIFE] Diffie, Whitfield and M.E. Hellman,"New Directions in
Cryptography, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
IT-22, 1976.
[DONI] Donitz, Karl, Memoirs: Ten Years and Twenty Days,
London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1959.
[DOUB] TIBEX, " A Short Study in doubles ( Word beginning or
ending in double letters)," FM43, The Cryptogram,
published by the American Cryptogram Association,
1943.
[DOW] Dow, Don. L., "Crypto-Mania, Version 3.0", Box 1111,
Nashua, NH. 03061-1111, (603) 880-6472, Cost $15 for
registered version and available as shareware under
CRYPTM.zip on CIS or zipnet.
[EIIC] Ei'ichi Hirose, ",Finland ni okeru tsushin joho," in
Showa gunji hiwa: Dodai kurabu koenshu, Vol 1, Dodai
kurabu koenshu henshu iinkai, ed., (Toyko: Dodai
keizai konwakai, 1987), pp 59-60.
[ELCY] Gaines, Helen Fouche, Cryptanalysis, Dover, New York,
1956. [ A text that every serious player should have!]
[ENIG] Tyner, Clarence E. Jr., and Randall K. Nichols,
"ENIGMA95 - A Simulation of Enhanced Enigma Cipher
Machine on A Standard Personal Computer," for
publication, November, 1995.
[EPST] Epstein, Sam and Beryl, "The First Book of Codes and
Ciphers," Ambassador Books, Toronto, Canada, 1956.
[ERSK] Erskine, Ralph, "Naval Enigma: The Breaking of
Heimisch and Triton," Intelligence and National
Security 3, Jan. 1988.
[EVES] , Howard, "An Introduction to the History of
Mathematics, " New York, Holt Rinehart winston, 1964.
[EYRA] Eyraud, Charles, "Precis de Cryptographie Moderne'"
Paris, 1953.
[FIBO] LOGONE BASETEN, "Use of Fibonacci Numbers in
Cryptography," JF69, The Cryptogram, published by the
American Cryptogram Association, 1969.
[FING] HELCRYPT, "Cryptography in Fingerprinting," FM51, The
Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram
Association, 1951.
[FL] Anonymous, The Friedman Legacy: A Tribute to William
and Elizabeth Friedman, National Security Agency,
Central Security Service, Center for Cryptological
History,1995.
[FLI1] Flicke, W. F., "War Secrets in the Ether - Volume I,"
Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1977.
[FLIC] Flicke, W. F., "War Secrets in the Ether - Volume II,"
Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1977.
[FLIC] Flicke, W. F., "War Secrets in the Ether," Aegean Park
Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1994.
[FORE] DELAC, "Solving a Foreign Periodic by Lining Up the
Alphabets," JJ46, The Cryptogram, published by the
American Cryptogram Association, 1946.
[FOWL] Fowler, Mark and Radhi Parekh, " Codes and Ciphers,
- Advanced Level," EDC Publishing, Tulsa OK, 1994.
(clever and work)
[FRAA] Friedman, William F. , "American Army Field Codes in
The American Expeditionary Forces During the First
World War, USA 1939.
[FRAB] Friedman, W. F., Field Codes used by the German Army
During World War. 1919.
[FRAN] Franks, Peter, "Calculator Ciphers," Information
Associates, Champaign, Il. 1980.
[FRE] Friedman, William F. , "Elements of Cryptanalysis,"
Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1976.
[FREA] Friedman, William F. , "Advanced Military
Cryptography," Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA,
1976.
[FREB] Friedman, William F. , "Elementary Military
Cryptography," Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA,
1976.
[FREC] Friedman, William F., "Cryptology," The Encyclopedia
Britannica, all editions since 1929. A classic
article by the greatest cryptanalyst.
[FRSG] Friedman, William F., "Solving German Codes in World
War I, " Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1977.
[FR1] Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D.,
Military Cryptanalytics Part I - Volume 1, Aegean Park
Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1985.
[FR2] Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D.,
Military Cryptanalytics Part I - Volume 2, Aegean Park
Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1985.
[FR3] Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D.,
Military Cryptanalytics Part III, Aegean Park Press,
Laguna Hills, CA, 1995.
[FR4] Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D.,
Military Cryptanalytics Part IV, Aegean Park Press,
Laguna Hills, CA, 1995.
[FR5] Friedman, William F. Military Cryptanalysis - Part I,
Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1980.
[FR6] Friedman, William F. Military Cryptanalysis - Part II,
Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1980.
[FR7] Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D.,
Military Cryptanalytics Part II - Volume 1, Aegean
Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1985.
[FR8] Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D.,
Military Cryptanalytics Part II - Volume 2, Aegean
Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1985.
[FR22] Friedman, William F., The Index of Coincidence and Its
Applications In Cryptography, Publication 22, The
Riverbank Publications, Aegean Park Press, Laguna
Hills, CA, 1979.
[FRS6] Friedman, W. F., "Six Lectures On Cryptology,"
National Archives, SRH-004.
[FR8] Friedman, W. F., "Cryptography and Cryptanalysis
Articles," Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1976.
[FR9] Friedman, W. F., "History of the Use of Codes," Aegean
Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1977.
[FRZM] Friedman, William F.,and Charles J. Mendelsohn, "The
Zimmerman Telegram of January 16, 1917 and its
Cryptographic Background," Aegean Park Press, Laguna
Hills, CA, 1976.
[FROM] Fromkin, V and Rodman, R., "Introduction to Language,"
4th ed.,Holt Reinhart & Winston, New York, 1988.
[FRS] Friedman, William F. and Elizabeth S., "The
Shakespearean Ciphers Examined," Cambridge University
Press, London, 1957.
[FUMI] Fumio Nakamura, Rikugun ni okeru COMINT no hoga to
hatten," The Journal of National Defense, 16-1 (June
1988) pp85 - 87.
[GAJ] Gaj, Krzysztof, "Szyfr Enigmy: Metody zlamania,"
Warsaw Wydawnictwa Komunikacji i Lacznosci, 1989.
[GAR1] Gardner, Martin, "536 Puzzles and Curious Problems,"
Scribners, 1967.
[GAR2] Gardner, Martin, "Mathematics, Magic, and Mystery ,"
Dover, 1956.
[GAR3] Gardner, Martin, "New Mathematical Diversions from
Scientific American," Simon and Schuster, 1966.
[GAR4] Gardner, Martin, "Sixth Book of Mathematical Games
from Scientific American," Simon and Schuster, 1971.
[GARL] Garlinski, Jozef, 'The Swiss Corridor', Dent, London
1981.
[GAR1] Garlinski, Jozef, 'Hitler's Last Weapons', Methuen,
London 1978.
[GAR2] Garlinski, Jozef, 'The Enigma War', New York,
Scribner, 1979.
[GE] "Security," General Electric, Reference manual Rev.
B., 3503.01, Mark III Service, 1977.
[GERH] Gerhard, William D., "Attack on the U.S., Liberty,"
SRH-256, Aegean Park Press, 1981.
[GERM] "German Dictionary," Hippocrene Books, Inc., New York,
1983.
[GILE] Giles, Herbert A., "Chinese Self-Taught," Padell Book
Co., New York, 1936?
[GIVI] Givierge, General Marcel, " Course In Cryptography,"
Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1978. Also, M.
Givierge, "Cours de Cryptographie," Berger-Levrault,
Paris, 1925.
[GLEN] Gleason, Norma, "Fun With Codes and Ciphers Workbook,"
Dover, New York, 1988.
[GLE1] Gleason, Norma, "Cryptograms and Spygrams," Dover, New
York, 1981.
[GLEA] Gleason, A. M., "Elementary Course in Probability for
the Cryptanalyst," Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills,
CA, 1985.
[GLOV] Glover, D. Beaird, "Secret Ciphers of the 1876
Presidential Election," Aegean Park Press, Laguna
Hills, CA, 1991.
[GODD] Goddard, Eldridge and Thelma, "Cryptodyct," Marion,
Iowa, 1976
[GORD] Gordon, Cyrus H., " Forgotten Scripts: Their Ongoing
Discovery and Decipherment," Basic Books, New York,
1982.
[GRA1] Grandpre: "Grandpre, A. de--Cryptologist. Part 1
'Cryptographie Pratique - The Origin of the Grandpre',
ISHCABIBEL, The Cryptogram, SO60, American Cryptogram
Association, 1960.
[GRA2] Grandpre: "Grandpre Ciphers", ROGUE, The Cryptogram,
SO63, American Cryptogram Association, 1963.
[GRA3] Grandpre: "Grandpre", Novice Notes, LEDGE, The
Cryptogram, MJ75, American Cryptogram Association,1975
[GRAH] Graham, L. A., "Ingenious Mathematical Problems and
Methods," Dover, 1959.
[GRAN] Grant, E. A., "Kids Book of Secret Codes, Signals and
Ciphers, Running Press, 1989.
[GRAP] DR. CRYPTOGRAM,"The Graphic Position Chart (On
Aristocrats)," JF59, The Cryptogram, American
Cryptogram Association, 1959.
[GREU] Greulich, Helmut, "Spion in der Streichholzschachtel:
Raffinierte Methoden der Abhortechnik, Gutersloh:
Bertelsmann, 1969.
[GRI1] ASAP,"An Aid For Grille Ciphers," SO93, The
Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1993.
[GRI2] DUN SCOTUS,"Binary Number Grille," JA60, The
Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1960.
[GRI3] S-TUCK,"Grille Solved By the Tableaux Method," DJ42,
The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1942.
[GRI4] The SQUIRE,"More About Grilles," ON40,DJ40, The
Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1940,
1940.
[GRI5] OMAR,"Rotating Grille Cipher," FM41, The Cryptogram,
American Cryptogram Association, 1941.
[GRI6] S-TUCK,"Solving The Grille. A New Tableaux Method,"
FM44, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association,
1944.
[GRI7] LABRONICUS,"Solving The Turning Grille," JF88, The
Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1988.
[GRI8] BERYL,"The Turning Grille," ND92, The Cryptogram,
American Cryptogram Association, 1992.
[GRI9] SHERLAC and S-TUCKP,"Triangular Grilles," ON45, The
Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1945.
[GRIA] SHERLAC,"Turning Grille," ON49, The Cryptogram,
American Cryptogram Association, 1949.
[GRIB] DUN SCOTUS,"Turning (by the numbers)," SO61, The
Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1961.
[GRIC] LEDGE,"Turning Grille (Novice Notes)," JA77, The
Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1977.
[GRO1] DENDAI, DICK," Analysis of Gromark Special,"ND74, The
Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1974.
[GRO2] BERYL," BERYL'S Pearls: Gromark Primers by hand
calculator," ND91, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram
Association, 1991.
[GRO3] MARSHEN," Checking the Numerical Key,"JF70, The
Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1970.
[GRO4] PHOENIX," Computer Column: Gronsfeld -> Gromark,"
"MJ90, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram
Association, 1990.
[GRO5] PHOENIX," Computer Column: Perodic Gromark," MJ90
The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1990.
[GRO6] ROGUE," Cycles for Gromark Running Key," JF75, The
Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1975.
[GRO7] DUMBO," Gromark Cipher," MA69, JA69, The Cryptogram,
American Cryptogram Association, 1969.
[GRO8] DAN SURR," Gromark Club Solution," MA75, The
Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1975.
[GRO9] B.NATURAL," Keyword Recovery in Periodic Gromark,"
SO73, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association,
1973.
[GROA] D.STRASSE," Method For Determining Term of Key," MA75,
The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1975.
[GROB] CRUX," More On Gromark Keys," ND87, The Cryptogram,
American Cryptogram Association, 1987.
[GROC] DUMBO," Periodic Gromark ," MA73, The Cryptogram,
American Cryptogram Association, 1973.
[GROD] ROGUE," Periodic Gromark ," SO73, The Cryptogram,
American Cryptogram Association, 1973.
[GROE] ROGUE," Theoretical Frequencies in the Gromark," MA74,
The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1974.
[GRON] R.L.H., "Condensed Analysis of a Gronsfeld," AM38,
ON38,The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association,
1938,1938.
[GRN1] CHARMER, "Gronsfeld," AS44, The Cryptogram, American
Cryptogram Association, 1944.
[GRN2] PICCOLA, "Gronsfeld Cipher," ON35, The Cryptogram,
American Cryptogram Association, 1935.
[GRN3] S-TUCK, "Gronsfeld Cipher," AS44, The Cryptogram,
American Cryptogram Association, 1944.
[GROU] Groueff, Stephane, "Manhattan Project: The Untold
Story of the Making of the Atom Bomb," Little, Brown
and Company,1967.
[GUST] Gustave, B., "Enigma:ou, la plus grande 'enigme de la
guerre 1939-1945." Paris:Plon, 1973.
[GYLD] Gylden, Yves, "The Contribution of the Cryptographic
Bureaus in the World War," Aegean Park Press, 1978.
[HA] Hahn, Karl, " Frequency of Letters", English Letter
Usage Statistics using as a sample, "A Tale of Two
Cities" by Charles Dickens, Usenet SCI.Crypt, 4 Aug
1994.
[HAFT] Haftner, Katie and John Markoff, "Cyberpunk,"
Touchstine, 1991.
[HAGA] Hagamen,W. D. et. al., "Encoding Verbal Information as
Unique Numbers," IBM Systems Journal, Vol 11, No. 4,
1972.
[HAWA] Hitchcock, H. R., "Hawaiian," Charles E. Tuttle, Co.,
Toyko, 1968.
[HAWC] Hawcock, David and MacAllister, Patrick, "Puzzle
Power! Multidimensional Codes, Illusions, Numbers,
and Brainteasers," Little, Brown and Co., New York,
1994.
[HEBR] COMET, "First Hebrew Book (of Cryptology)," JF72, The
Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram
Association, 1972.
[HELD] , Gilbert, "Top Secret Data Encryption Techniques,"
Prentice Hall, 1993. (great title..limited use)
[HEMP] Hempfner, Philip and Tania, "Pattern Word List For
Divided and Undivided Cryptograms," unpublished
manuscript, 1984.
[HEPP] Hepp, Leo, "Die Chiffriermaschine 'ENIGMA'", F-Flagge,
1978.
[HIDE] Hideo Kubota, " Zai-shi dai-go kokugun tokushu joho
senshi." unpublished manuscript, NIDS.
[HIER] ISHCABIBEL, "Hieroglyphics: Cryptology Started Here,
MA71, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association,
1971.
[HILL] Hill, Lester, S., "Cryptography in an Algebraic
Alphabet", The American Mathematical Monthly, June-
July 1929.
[HIL1] Hill, L. S. 1929. Cryptography in an Algebraic
Alphabet. American Mathematical Monthly. 36:306-312.
[HIL2] Hill, L. S. 1931. Concerning the Linear
Transformation Apparatus in Cryptography. American
Mathematical Monthly. 38:135-154.
[HINS] Hinsley, F. H., "History of British Intelligence in
the Second World War", Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, 1979-1988.
[HIN2] Hinsley, F. H. and Alan Strip in "Codebreakers -Story
of Bletchley Park", Oxford University Press, 1994.
[HIN3] Hinsley, F. H., et. al., "British Intelligence in The
Second World War: Its Influence on Strategy and
Operations," London, HMSO vol I, 1979, vol II 1981,
vol III, 1984 and 1988.
[HISA] Hisashi Takahashi, "Military Friction, Diplomatic
Suasion in China, 1937 - 1938," The Journal of
International Studies, Sophia Univ, Vol 19, July,
1987.
[HIS1] Barker, Wayne G., "History of Codes and Ciphers in the
U.S. Prior to World War I," Aegean Park Press, Laguna
Hills, CA, 1978.
[HITT] Hitt, Parker, Col. " Manual for the Solution of
Military Ciphers," Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills,
CA, 1976.
[HODG] Hodges, Andrew, "Alan Turing: The Enigma," New York,
Simon and Schuster, 1983.
[HOFF] Hoffman, Lance J., editor, "Building In Big Brother:
The Cryptographic Policy Debate," Springer-Verlag,
N.Y.C., 1995. ( A useful and well balanced book of
cryptographic resource materials. )
[HOF1] Hoffman, Lance. J., et. al.," Cryptography Policy,"
Communications of the ACM 37, 1994, pp. 109-17.
[HOLM Holmes, W. J., "Double-Edged Secrets: U.S. Naval
Intelligence Operations in the Pacific During WWII",
Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1979.
[HOM1] Homophonic: A Multiple Substitution Number Cipher", S-
TUCK, The Cryptogram, DJ45, American Cryptogram
Association, 1945.
[HOM2] Homophonic: Bilinear Substitution Cipher, Straddling,"
ISHCABIBEL, The Cryptogram, AS48, American Cryptogram
Association, 1948.
[HOM3] Homophonic: Computer Column:"Homophonic Solving,"
PHOENIX, The Cryptogram, MA84, American Cryptogram
Association, 1984.
[HOM4] Homophonic: Hocheck Cipher,", SI SI, The Cryptogram,
JA90, American Cryptogram Association, 1990.
[HOM5] Homophonic: "Homophonic Checkerboard," GEMINATOR, The
Cryptogram, MA90, American Cryptogram Association,
1990.
[HOM6] Homophonic: "Homophonic Number Cipher," (Novice Notes)
LEDGE, The Cryptogram, SO71, American Cryptogram
Association, 1971.
[HYDE] H. Montgomery Hyde, "Room 3603, The Story of British
Intelligence Center in New York During World War II",
New York, Farrar, Straus, 1963.
[IBM1] IBM Research Reports, Vol 7., No 4, IBM Research,
Yorktown Heights, N.Y., 1971.
[IC1 ] GIZMO, "Bifid Period Determination Using a Digraphic
Index of Coincidence, JF79, The Cryptogram, American
Cryptogram Association, 1979.
[IC2 ] PHOENIX, "Computer Column: Applications of the Index
of Coincidence, JA90, The Cryptogram, American
Cryptogram Association, 1990.
[IC3 ] PHOENIX, "Computer Column: Digraphic Index of
Coincidence, ND90, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram
Association, 1990.
[IC4 ] PHOENIX, "Computer Column: Index of Coincidence (IC),
JA82, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association,
1982.
[IC5 ] PHOENIX, "Computer Column: Index of Coincidence,
(correction) MA83, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram
Association, 1983.
[IMPE] D'Imperio, M. E, " The Voynich Manuscript - An Elegant
Enigma," Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1976.
[INDE] PHOENIX, Index to the Cryptogram: 1932-1993, ACA,
1994.
[ITAL] Italian - English Dictionary, compiled by Vittore E.
Bocchetta, Fawcett Premier, New York, 1965.
[JAPA] Martin, S.E., "Basic Japanese Conversation
Dictionary," Charles E. Tuttle Co., Toyko, 1981.
[JAPH] "Operational History of Japanese Naval Communications,
December 1941- August 1945, Monograph by Japanese
General Staff and War Ministry, Aegean Park Press,
1985.
[JOHN] Johnson, Brian, 'The Secret War', Arrow Books,
London 1979.
[KADI] al-Kadi, Ibrahim A., Cryptography and Data Security:
Cryptographic Properties of Arabic, Proceedings of the
Third Saudi Engineering Conference. Riyadh, Saudi
Arabia: Nov 24-27, Vol 2:910-921., 1991.
[KAHN] Kahn, David, "The Codebreakers", Macmillian Publishing
Co. , 1967.
[KAH1] Kahn, David, "Kahn On Codes - Secrets of the New
Cryptology," MacMillan Co., New York, 1983.
[KAH2] Kahn, David, "An Enigma Chronology", Cryptologia Vol
XVII,Number 3, July 1993.
[KAH3] Kahn, David, "Seizing The Enigma: The Race to Break
the German U-Boat Codes 1939-1943 ", Houghton Mifflin,
New York, 1991.
[KARA] Karalekas, Anne, "History of the Central Intelligence
Agency," Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1977.
[KASI] Kasiski, Major F. W. , "Die Geheimschriften und die
Dechiffrir-kunst," Schriften der Naturforschenden
Gesellschaft in Danzig, 1872.
[KAS1] Bowers, M. W., {ZEMBIE} "Major F. W. Kasiski -
Cryptologist," The Cryptogram, XXXI, JF, 1964.
[KAS2] ----, "Kasiski Method," JF64,MA64, The Cryptogram,
American Cryptogram Association, 1964.
[KAS3] PICCOLA, "Kasiski Method for Periodics," JJ35,AS35,
The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1935,
1935.
[KAS4] AB STRUSE, "Who was Kasiski?" SO76, The Cryptogram,
American Cryptogram Association, 1976.
[KATZ] Katzen, Harry, Jr., "Computer Data Security,"Van
Nostrand Reinhold, 1973.
[KERC] Kerckhoffs, "la Cryptographie Militaire, " Journel des
Sciences militaires, 9th series, IX, (January and
February, 1883, Libraire Militaire de L. Baudoin &Co.,
Paris. English trans. by Warren T, McCready of the
University of Toronto, 1964
[KOBL] Koblitz, Neal, " A Course in Number Theory and
Cryptography, 2nd Ed, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994.
[KONH] Konheim, Alan G., "Cryptography -A Primer" , John
Wiley, 1981, pp 212 ff.
[KORD] Kordemsky, B., "The Moscow Puzzles," Schribners, 1972.
[KOTT] Kottack, Phillip Conrad, "Anthropology: The
Exploration Of Human Diversity," 6th ed., McGraw-Hill,
Inc., New York, N.Y. 1994.
[KOZA] Kozaczuk, Dr. Wladyslaw, "Enigma: How the German
Machine Cipher was Broken and How it Was Read by the
Allies in WWI", University Pub, 1984.
[KRAI] Kraitchek, "Mathematical Recreations," Norton, 1942,
and Dover, 1963.
[KULL] Kullback, Solomon, Statistical Methods in
Cryptanalysis, Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, Ca.
1976.
[LAFF] Laffin, John, "Codes and Ciphers: Secret Writing
Through The Ages," Abelard-Schuman, London, 1973.
[LAI] Lai, Xuejia, "On the Design and Security of Block
Ciphers," ETH Series in Information Processing 1,
1992. (Article defines the IDEA Cipher)
[LAIM] Lai, Xuejia, and James L. Massey, "A Proposal for a
New Block Encryption Standard," Advances in Cryptology
-Eurocrypt 90 Proceedings, 1992, pp. 55-70.
[LAKE] Lakoff, R., "Language and the Women's Place," Harper &
Row, New York, 1975.
[LANG] Langie, Andre, "Cryptography," translated from French
by J.C.H. Macbeth, Constable and Co., London, 1922.
[LAN1] Langie, Andre, "Cryptography - A Study on Secret
Writings", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA. 1989.
[LAN2] Langie, Andre, and E. A. Soudart, "Treatise on
Cryptography, " Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA.
1991.
[LATI] BRASSPOUNDER, "Latin Language Data, "The Cryptogram,"
July-August 1993.
[LAUE] Lauer, Rudolph F., "Computer Simulation of Classical
Substitution Cryptographic Systems" Aegean Park Press,
1981, p72 ff.
[LEAR] Leary, Penn, " The Second Cryptographic Shakespeare,"
Omaha, NE [from author] 1994.
[LEA1] Leary, Penn, " Supplement to The Second Cryptographic
Shakespeare," Omaha, NE [from author] 1994.
[LEAU] Leaute, H., "Sur les Mecanismes Cryptographiques de M.
de Viaris," Le Genie Civil, XIII, Sept 1, 1888.
[LEDG] LEDGE, "NOVICE NOTES," American Cryptogram
Association, 1994. [ One of the best introductory
texts on ciphers written by an expert in the field.
Not only well written, clear to understand but as
authoritative as they come! ]
[LENS] Lenstra, A.K. et. al. "The Number Field Sieve,"
Proceedings of the 22 ACM Symposium on the Theory of
Computing," Baltimore, ACM Press, 1990, pp 564-72.
[LEN1] Lenstra, A.K. et. al. "The Factorization of the Ninth
Fermat Number," Mathematics of Computation 61 1993,
pp. 319-50.
[LEWF] Lewis, Frank, "Problem Solving with Particular
Reference to the Cryptic (or British) Crossword and
other 'American Puzzles', Part One," by Frank Lewis,
Montserrat, January 1989.
[LEW1] Lewis, Frank, "The Nations Best Puzzles, Book Six," by
Frank Lewis, Montserrat, January 1990.
[LEWI] Lewin, Ronald, 'Ultra goes to War', Hutchinson,
London 1978.
[LEW1] Lewin, Ronald, 'The American Magic - Codes, ciphers
and The Defeat of Japan', Farrar Straus Giroux, 1982.
[LEWY] Lewy, Guenter, "America In Vietnam", Oxford University
Press, New York, 1978.
[LEVI] Levine, J., U.S. Cryptographic Patents 1861-1981,
Cryptologia, Terre Haute, In 1983.
[LEV1] Levine, J. 1961. Some Elementary Cryptanalysis
of Algebraic Cryptography. American Mathematical
Monthly. 68:411-418
[LEV2] Levine, J. 1961. Some Applications of High-
Speed Computers to the Case n =2 of Algebraic
Cryptography. Mathematics of Computation. 15:254-260
[LEV3] Levine, J. 1963. Analysis of the Case n =3 in
Algebraic Cryptography With Involuntary Key Matrix
With Known Alphabet. Journal fuer die Reine und
Angewante Mathematik. 213:1-30.
[LISI] Lisicki, Tadeusz, 'Dzialania Enigmy', Orzet Biaty,
London July-August, 1975; 'Enigma i Lacida',
Przeglad lacznosci, London 1974- 4; 'Pogromcy
Enigmy we Francji', Orzet Biaty, London, Sept.
1975.'
[LYNC] Lynch, Frederick D., "Pattern Word List, Vol 1.,"
Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1977.
[LYN1] Lynch, Frederick D., "An Approach To Cryptarithms,"
ACA, 1976.
[LYSI] Lysing, Henry, aka John Leonard Nanovic, "Secret
Writing," David Kemp Co., NY 1936.
[MACI] Macintyre, D., "The Battle of the Atlantic," New York,
Macmillan, 1961.
[MADA] Madachy, J. S., "Mathematics on Vacation," Scribners,
1972.
[MAGN] Magne, Emile, Le plaisant Abbe de Boisrobert, Paris,
Mecure de France, 1909.
[MANN] Mann, B.,"Cryptography with Matrices," The Pentagon,
Vol 21, Fall 1961.
[MANS] Mansfield, Louis C. S., "The Solution of Codes and
Ciphers", Alexander Maclehose & Co., London, 1936.
[MARO] Marotta, Michael, E. "The Code Book - All About
Unbreakable Codes and How To Use Them," Loompanics
Unlimited, 1979. [This is a terrible book. Badly
written, without proper authority, unprofessional, and
prejudicial to boot. And, it has one of the better
illustrations of the Soviet one-time pad with example,
with three errors in cipher text, that I have
corrected for the author.]
[MARS] Marshall, Alan, "Intelligence and Espionage in the
Reign of Charles II," 1660-1665, Cambridge University,
New York, N.Y., 1994.
[MART] Martin, James, "Security, Accuracy and Privacy in
Computer Systems," Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs,
N.J., 1973.
[MAST] Lewis, Frank W., "Solving Cipher Problems -
Cryptanalysis, Probabilities and Diagnostics," Aegean
Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1992.
[MAU] Mau, Ernest E., "Word Puzzles With Your
Microcomputer," Hayden Books, 1990.
[MAVE] Mavenel, Denis L., Lettres, Instructions
Diplomatiques et Papiers d' Etat du Cardinal
Richelieu, Historie Politique, Paris 1853-1877
Collection.
[MAYA] Coe, M. D., "Breaking The Maya Code," Thames and
Hudson, New York, 1992.
[MAZU] Mazur, Barry, "Questions On Decidability and
Undecidability in Number Theory," Journal of Symbolic
Logic, Volume 54, Number 9, June, 1994.
[MELL] Mellen G. 1981. Graphic Solution of a Linear
Transformation Cipher. Cryptologia. 5:1-19.
[MEND] Mendelsohn, Capt. C. J., Studies in German Diplomatic
Codes Employed During World War, GPO, 1937.
[MERK] Merkle, Ralph, "Secrecy, Authentication and Public Key
Systems," Ann Arbor, UMI Research Press, 1982.
[MER1] Merkle, Ralph, "Secure Communications Over Insecure
Channels," Communications of the ACM 21, 1978, pp.
294-99.
[MER2] Merkle, Ralph and Martin E. Hellman, "On the Security
of Multiple Encryption ," Communications of the ACM
24, 1981, pp. 465-67.
[MER3] Merkle, Ralph and Martin E. Hellman, "Hiding
Information and Signatures in Trap Door Knapsacks,"
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 24, 1978, pp.
525-30.
[MILL] Millikin, Donald, " Elementary Cryptography ", NYU
Bookstore, NY, 1943.
[MM] Meyer, C. H., and Matyas, S. M., " CRYPTOGRAPHY - A
New Dimension in Computer Data Security, " Wiley
Interscience, New York, 1982.
[MODE] Modelski, Tadeusz, 'The Polish Contribution to the
Ultimate Allied Victory in the Second World War',
Worthing (Sussex) 1986.
[MRAY] Mrayati, Mohammad, Yahya Meer Alam and Hassan al-
Tayyan., Ilm at-Ta'miyah wa Istikhraj al-Mu,amma Ind
al-Arab. Vol 1. Damascus: The Arab Academy of
Damascus.,
1987.
[MULL] Mulligan, Timothy," The German Navy Examines its
Cryptographic Security, Oct. 1941, Military affairs,
vol 49, no 2, April 1985.
[MYER] Myer, Albert, "Manual of Signals," Washington, D.C.,
USGPO, 1879.
[NBS] National Bureau of Standards, "Data Encryption
Standard," FIPS PUB 46-1, 1987.
[NIBL] Niblack, A. P., "Proposed Day, Night and Fog Signals
for the Navy with Brief Description of the Ardois
Hight System," In Proceedings of the United States
Naval Institute, Annapolis: U. S. Naval Institute,
1891.
[NIC1] Nichols, Randall K., "Xeno Data on 10 Different
Languages," ACA-L, August 18, 1995.
[NIC2] Nichols, Randall K., "Chinese Cryptography Parts 1-3,"
ACA-L, August 24, 1995.
[NIC3] Nichols, Randall K., "German Reduction Ciphers Parts
1-4," ACA-L, September 15, 1995.
[NIC4] Nichols, Randall K., "Russian Cryptography Parts 1-3,"
ACA-L, September 05, 1995.
[NIC5] Nichols, Randall K., "A Tribute to William F.
Friedman", NCSA FORUM, August 20, 1995.
[NIC6] Nichols, Randall K., "Wallis and Rossignol," NCSA
FORUM, September 25, 1995.
[NIC7] Nichols, Randall K., "Arabic Contributions to
Cryptography,", in The Cryptogram, ND95, ACA, 1995.
[NIC8] Nichols, Randall K., "U.S. Coast Guard Shuts Down
Morse Code System," The Cryptogram, SO95, ACA
Publications, 1995.
[NIC9] Nichols, Randall K., "PCP Cipher," NCSA FORUM, March
10, 1995.
[NICX] Nichols, R. K., Keynote Speech to A.C.A. Convention,
"Breaking Ciphers in Other Languages.," New Orleans,
La., 1993.
[NICK] Nickels, Hamilton, "Codemaster: Secrets of Making and
Breaking Codes," Paladin Press, Boulder, CO., 1990.
[NIHL] PHOENIX," Computer Column: Nihilist Substitution,"
MA88, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram
Association, 1988.
[NIH1] PHOENIX," Computer Column: Nihilist Substitution,"
MJ88, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram
Association, 1988.
[NIH2] PHOENIX," Computer Column: Nihilist Substitution,"
JA88, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram
Association, 1988.
[NIH3] PHOENIX," Computer Column: Nihilist Substitution,"
JA89, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram
Association, 1989.
[NIH4] FIDDLE and CLEAR SKYS," FIDDLE'S slide for Nihilist
Number Substitution," ON48, The Cryptogram, American
Cryptogram Association, 1948.
[NIH5] RIG R. MORTIS," Mixed Square Nihilist," JA60, The
Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1960.
[NIH6] PICCOLA," Nihilist Number Cipher," AS37, The
Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1937.
[NIH7] PICCOLA," Nihilist Transposition," DJ38, The
Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1938.
[NORM] Norman, Bruce, 'Secret Warfare', David & Charles,
Newton Abbot (Devon) 1973.
[NORW] Marm, Ingvald and Sommerfelt, Alf, "Norwegian," Teach
Yourself Books, Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1967.
[NSA] NSA's Friedman Legacy - A Tribute to William and
Elizabeth Friedman, NSA Center for Cryptological
[NSA1] NMasked Dispatches: Cryptograms and Cryptology in
American History, 1775 -1900. Series 1, Pre World War
I Volume I, National Security Agency, Central Security
Service, NSA Center for Cryptological History, 1993.
[OHAV] OHAVER, M. E., "Solving Cipher Secrets," Aegean Park
Press, 1989.
[OHA1] OHAVER, M. E., "Cryptogram Solving," Etcetera Press,
1973.
[OKLA] Andre, Josephine and Richard V. Andree,
"Cryptarithms," Unit One, Problem Solving and Logical
Thinking, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Ok. Copy
No: 486, 1976.
[OKLI] Andre, Josephine and Richard V. Andree, " Instructors
Manual For Cryptarithms," Unit One, Problem Solving
and Logical Thinking, University of Oklahoma, Norman,
Ok. Copy No: 486, 1976.
[OP20] "Course in Cryptanalysis," OP-20-G', Navy Department,
Office of Chief of Naval Operations, Washington, 1941.
[OTA] "Defending Secrets, Sharing Data: New Locks and Keys
for Electronic Information," Office of Technology
Assessment, 1988.
[OZK ] OZ,"Variation in Letter Frequency with Cipher Length
or Where Did All Those K's Come From? ," SO59, The
Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1959.
[PEAR] "Pearl Harbor Revisited," U.S. Navy Communications
Intelligence, 1924-1941, U.S. Cryptological History
Series, Series IV, World War II, Volume 6, NSA CSS ,
CH-E32-94-01, 1994.
[PECK] Peck, Lyman C., "Secret Codes, Remainder Arithmetic,
and Matrices," National Counsil of Teachers of
Mathematics, Washington, D.C. 1971.
[PERR] Perrault, Charles, Tallement des Reaux, Les
Historiettes, Bibliotheque del La Pleiade, Paris 1960,
pp 256-258.
[PGP] Garfinkel, Simson, "PGP: Pretty Good Privacy,"
O'reilly and Associates, Inc. Sebastopol, CA. 1995.
[PHL ] PHIL,"System Identification by General Frequencies,"
AM48, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association,
1948.
[PHIL] Phillips, H., "My Best Puzzles in Logic and
Reasoning," Dover, 1961.
[PIER] Pierce, Clayton C., "Cryptoprivacy", 325 Carol Drive,
Ventura, Ca. 93003, 1994.
[PIE1] Pierce, Clayton C., "Privacy, Cryptography, and Secure
Communication ", 325 Carol Drive, Ventura, Ca. 93003,
1977.
[POLY] Polya, G., "Mathematics and Plausible Reasoning,"
Princeton Press, 1954.
[POL1] Polya, G., "How To Solve It.," Princeton Press, 1948.
[POPE] Pope, Maurice, "The Story of Decipherment: From
Egyptian Hieroglyphic to Linear B., Thames and Hudson
Ltd., 1975.
[PORT] Barker, Wayne G. "Cryptograms in Portuguese," Aegean
Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA., 1986.
[POR1] Aliandro, Hygino, "The Portuguese-English Dictionary,"
Pocket Books, New York, N.Y., 1960.
[POUN] Poundstone, William, "Biggest Secrets," Quill
Publishing, New York, 1993. ( Explodes the Beale
Cipher Hoax.)
[PRIC] Price, A.,"Instruments of Darkness: the History of
Electronic Warfare, London, Macdonalds and Janes,
1977.
[PROT] "Protecting Your Privacy - A Comprehensive Report On
Eavesdropping Techniques and Devices and Their
Corresponding Countermeasures," Telecommunications
Publishing Inc., 1979.
[RAJ1] "Pattern and Non Pattern Words of 2 to 6 Letters," G &
C. Merriam Co., Norman, OK. 1977.
[RAJ2] "Pattern and Non Pattern Words of 7 to 8 Letters," G &
C. Merriam Co., Norman, OK. 1980.
[RAJ3] "Pattern and Non Pattern Words of 9 to 10 Letters," G
& C. Merriam Co., Norman, OK. 1981.
[RAJ4] "Non Pattern Words of 3 to 14 Letters," RAJA Books,
Norman, OK. 1982.
[RAJ5] "Pattern and Non Pattern Words of 10 Letters," G & C.
Merriam Co., Norman, OK. 1982.
[RAND] Randolph, Boris, "Cryptofun," Aegean Park Press, 1981.
[RB1] Friedman, William F., The Riverbank Publications,
Volume 1," Aegean Park Press, 1979.
[RB2] Friedman, William F., The Riverbank Publications,
Volume 2," Aegean Park Press, 1979.
[RB3] Friedman, William F., The Riverbank Publications,
Volume 3," Aegean Park Press, 1979.
[REJE] Rejewski, Marian, "Mathematical Solution of the Enigma
Cipher" published in vol 6, #1, Jan 1982 Cryptologia
pp 1-37.
[RELY] Relyea, Harold C., "Evolution and Organization of
Intelligence Activities in the United States," Aegean
Park Press, 1976.
[RENA] Renauld, P. "La Machine a' chiffrer 'Enigma'",
Bulletin Trimestriel de l'association des Amis de
L'Ecole superieure de guerre no 78, 1978.
[RHEE] Rhee, Man Young, "Cryptography and Secure Commun-
ications," McGraw Hill Co, 1994
[RIVE] Rivest, Ron, "Ciphertext: The RSA Newsletter 1, 1993.
[RIV1] Rivest, Ron, Shamir, A and L. Adleman, "A Method for
Obtaining Digital Signatures and Public Key
Cryptosystems," Communications of the ACM 21, 1978.
[ROAC] Roach, T., "Hobbyist's Guide To COMINT Collection and
Analysis," 1330 Copper Peak Lane, San Jose, Ca. 95120-
4271, 1994.
[ROBO] NYPHO, The Cryptogram, Dec 1940, Feb, 1941.
[ROHE] Jurgen Rohwer's Comparative Analysis of Allied and
Axis Radio-Intelligence in the Battle of the Atlantic,
Proceedings of the 13th Military History Symposium,
USAF Academy, 1988, pp 77-109.
[ROHW] Rohwer Jurgen, "Critical Convoy Battles of March
1943," London, Ian Allan, 1977.
[ROH1] Rohwer Jurgen, "Nachwort: Die Schlacht im Atlantik in
der Historischen Forschung, Munchen: Bernard and
Graefe, 1980.
[ROH2] Rohwer Jurgen, et. al. , "Chronology of the War at
Sea, Vol I, 1939-1942, London, Ian Allan, 1972.
[ROH3] Rohwer Jurgen, "U-Boote, Eine Chronik in Bildern,
Oldenburs, Stalling, 1962. Skizzen der 8 Phasen.
[ROOM] Hyde, H. Montgomery, "Room 3603, The Story of British
Intelligence Center in New York During World War II",
New York, Farrar, Straus, 1963.
[ROSE] Budge, E. A. Wallis, "The Rosetta Stone," British
Museum Press, London, 1927.
[RSA] RSA Data Security, Inc., "Mailsafe: Public Key
Encryption Software Users Manual, Version 5.0, Redwood
City, CA, 1994
[RUNY] Runyan, T. J. and Jan M. Copes "To Die Gallently",
Westview Press 1994, p85-86 ff.
[RYP1] A B C, "Adventures in Cryptarithms (digital maze),"
JA63, The Cryptogram, published by the American
Cryptogram Association, 1963.
[RYP2] CROTALUS "Analysis of the Classic Cryptarithm,"MA73,
The Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram
Association, 1973.
[RYP3] CLEAR SKIES "Another Way To Solve Cryptarithms,"DJ44,
The Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram
Association, 1944.
[RYP4] CROTALUS "Arithemetic in Other Bases (Duodecimal
table),"JF74, The Cryptogram, published by the
American Cryptogram Association, 1974.
[RYP5] LEDGE, "Basic Patterns in Base Eleven and Twelve
Arithmetic,"SO77, ND77, The Cryptogram, published by
the American Cryptogram Association, 1977,1977.
[RYP6] COMPUTER USER, "Computer Solution of Cryptarithms,"
JF72, The Cryptogram, published by the American
Cryptogram Association, 1972.
[RYP7] PIT, "Cryptarithm Crutch," JA80, The Cryptogram,
published by the American Cryptogram Association,
1980.
[RYP8] DENDAI, DICK, "Cryptarithm Ccub root," ND76, The
Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram
Association, 1976.
[RYP9] S-TUCK, "Cryptarithm in Addition," AM44, The
Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram
Association, 1944.
[RYPA] APEX DX, "Cryptarithm Line of Attack," ND91, The
Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram
Association, 1991.
[RYPB] HUBBUBBER and CROTALUS, "Cryptarithm Observations,"
ND73, The Cryptogram, published by the American
Cryptogram Association, 1973.
[RYPC] CROTALUS, "Cryptarithms and Notation," JF73, The
Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram
Association, 1973.
[RYPD] JUNKERL, "Cryptarithms: The digital root method,"
AS43, The Cryptogram, published by the American
Cryptogram Association, 1943.
[RYPE] CROTALUS, "Divisibility by Eleven," ND89, The
Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram
Association, 1989.
[RYPF] S-TUCK, "Double Key Division," JJ43, The Cryptogram,
published by the American Cryptogram Association,
1943.
[RYPG] NEOTERIC, "Duo-Decimal Cryptarithms," AM40, The
Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram
Association, 1940.
[RYPH] QUINTUPLEX, "Duo-Decimal Cryptarithms," JJ40, The
Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram
Association, 1940.
[RYPI] FIDDLE, "Exhausitive for Three," JF59, The Cryptogram,
published by the American Cryptogram Association,
1959.
[RYPJ] ---, "Finding the Zero In Cryptarithms," DJ42, The
Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram
Association, 1942.
[RYPK] FILM-D, "Greater than Less than Diagram for
Cryptarithms," DJ51, The Cryptogram, published by the
American Cryptogram Association, 1951.
[RYPL] MI TI TI, "Introduction To Cryptarithms," SO63, The
Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram
Association, 1963.
[RYPM] FORMALHUT, "Leading Digit Analysis in Cryptarithms,"
JA91, The Cryptogram, published by the American
Cryptogram Association, 1991.
[RYPN] CROTALUS, "Make Your Own Arithmetic Tables In Other
Bases," MJ89, The Cryptogram, published by the
American Cryptogram Association, 1989.
[RYPO] BACEDI, "Method for Solving Cryptarithms," JF78, The
Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram
Association, 1978.
[RYPP] SHERLAC, "More on Cryptarithms," DJ44, The Cryptogram,
published by the American Cryptogram Association,
1944.
[RYPQ] FIRE-O, "Multiplicative Structures," MJ70, The
Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram
Association, 1970.
[RYPR] CROTALUS, "Solving A Division Cryptarithm," JA73, The
Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram
Association, 1973.
[RYPS] CROTALUS, "Solving A Multiplication Cryptarithm,"
MJ73, The Cryptogram, published by the American
Cryptogram Association, 1973.
[RYPT] PHOENIX, "Some thoughts on Solving Cryptarithms,"
SO87, The Cryptogram, published by the American
Cryptogram Association, 1987.
[RYPU] CROTALUS, "Square Root Cryptarithms," SO73, The
Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram
Association, 1973.
[RYPV] FIDDLE, "Theory of Duplicated Digital Figures,"
JJ53, The Cryptogram, published by the American
Cryptogram Association, 1953.
[RYPW] FIDDLE, "Theory of Three Unlike Digital Figures,"
AS52, The Cryptogram, published by the American
Cryptogram Association, 1952.
[RYPX] CROTALUS, "Unidecimal Tabless," MJ73, The Cryptogram,
published by the American Cryptogram Association,
1973.
[RYSK] Norbert Ryska and Siegfried Herda, "Kryptographische
Verfahren in der Datenverarbeitung," Gesellschaft fur
Informatik, Berlin, Springer-Verlag1980.
[SADL] Sadler, A. L., "The Code of the Samurai," Rutland and
Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Co., 1969.
[SACC] Sacco, Generale Luigi, " Manuale di Crittografia",
3rd ed., Rome, 1947.
[SALE] Salewski, Michael, "Die Deutscher Seekriegsleitung,
1938- 1945, Frankfurt/Main: Bernard and Graefe, 1970-
1974. 3 volumes.
[SANB] Sanbohonbu, ed., "Sanbohonbu kotokan shokuinhyo." NIDS
Archives.
[SAPR] Sapir, E., "Conceptual Categories in Primitive
Language," Science: 74: 578-584., 1931.
[SASS] Sassoons, George, "Radio Hackers Code Book",
Duckworth, London, 1986.
[SCHN] Schneier, Bruce, "Applied Cryptography: Protocols,
Algorithms, and Source Code C," John Wiley and Sons,
1994.
[SCH2] Schneier, Bruce, "Applied Cryptography: Protocols,
Algorithms, and Source Code C," 2nd ed., John Wiley
and Sons, 1995.
[SCHU] Schuh, fred, "Master Book of Mathematical Recreation,"
Dover, 1968.
[SCHW] Schwab, Charles, "The Equalizer," Charles Schwab, San
Francisco, 1994.
[SEBE] Seberry, Jennifer and Joseph Pieprzyk, "Cryptography:
An Introduction to Computer Security," Prentice Hall,
1989. [CAREFUL! Lots of Errors - Basic research
efforts may be flawed - see Appendix A pg 307 for
example.]
[SHAN] Shannon, C. E., "The Communication Theory of Secrecy
Systems," Bell System Technical Journal, Vol 28
(October 1949).
[SHIN] Shinsaku Tamura, "Myohin kosaku," San'ei Shuppansha,
Toyko, 1953.
[SHUL] Shulman, David, "An Annotated Bibliography of
Cryptography," Garland Publishing, New York, 1976.
[SIC1] S.I. Course in Cryptanalysis, Volume I, June 1942,
Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills , CA. 1989.
[SIC2] S.I. Course in Cryptanalysis, Volume II, June 1942,
Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills , CA. 1989.
[SIG1] "International Code Of Signals For Visual, Sound, and
Radio Communications," Defense Mapping Agency,
Hydrographic/Topographic Center, United States Ed.
Revised 1981
[SIG2] "International Code Of Signals For Visual, Sound, and
Radio Communications," U. S. Naval Oceanographic
Office, United States Ed., Pub. 102, 1969.
[SIMM] Simmons, G. J., "How To Insure that Data Acquired to
Verify Treaty Compliance are Trustworthy, " in
"Authentication without secrecy: A secure
communications problem uniquely solvable by asymmetric
encryption techniques.", IEEE EASCON 79, Washington,
1979, pp. 661-62.
[SINK] Sinkov, Abraham, "Elementary Cryptanalysis", The
Mathematical Association of America, NYU, 1966.
[SMIH] Smith, David E., "John Wallis as Cryptographer",
Bulletin of American Mathematical Society, XXIV, 1917.
[SMIT] Smith, Laurence D., "Cryptography, the Science of
Secret Writing," Dover, NY, 1943.
[SOLZ] Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr I. , "The Gulag Archipelago I-
III, " Harper and Row, New York, N.Y., 1975.
[SPAN] Barker, Wayne G. "Cryptograms in Spanish," Aegean Park
Press, Laguna Hills, CA., 1986.
[STAL] Stallings, William, "Protect Your Privacy: A Guide for
PGP Users," Prentice Hall PTR, 1995.
[STEV] Stevenson, William, 'A Man Called INTREPID',
Macmillan, London 1976.
[STIN] Stinson, D. R., "Cryptography, Theory and Practice,"
CRC Press, London, 1995.
[STIX] Stix, F., Zur Geschicte und Organisation der Wiener
Geheimen Ziffernkanzlei, Mitteilungen des
Osterreichischen Instituts fir Geschichtsforschung,
LI 1937.
[STUR] Sturtevant, E. H. and Bechtel, G., "A Hittite
Chrestomathy," Linguistic Society of American and
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1935.
[SURV] Austin, Richard B.,Chairman, "Standards Relating To
Electronic Surveillance," American Bar Association
Project On Minimum Standards For Criminal Justice,
Tentative Draft, June, 1968.
[SUVO] Suvorov, Viktor "Inside Soviet Military Intelligence,"
Berkley Press, New York, 1985.
[TERR] Terrett, D., "The Signal Corps: The Emergency (to
December 1941); G. R. Thompson, et. al, The Test(
December 1941 - July 1943); D. Harris and G.
Thompson, The Outcome;(Mid 1943 to 1945), Department
of the Army, Office of the Chief of Military History,
USGPO, Washington,1956 -1966.
[THEO] Theodore White and Annalee Jacoby, "Thunder Out Of
China," William Sloane Assoc., New York, 1946.
[THOM] Thompson, Ken, "Reflections on Trusting Trust,"
Communications of the ACM 27, 1984.
[TILD] Glover, D. Beaird, Secret Ciphers of The 1876
Presidential Election, Aegean Park Press, Laguna
Hills, Ca. 1991.
[TM32] TM 32-250, Fundamentals of Traffic Analysis (Radio
Telegraph) Department of the Army, 1948.
[TORR] Torrieri, Don J., "Principles of Military
Communication Systems," Artech, 1981.
[TRAD] U. S. Army Military History Institute, "Traditions of
The Signal Corps., Washington, D.C., USGPO, 1959.
[TRIB] Anonymous, New York Tribune, Extra No. 44, "The Cipher
Dispatches, New York, 1879.
[TRIT] Trithemius:Paul Chacornac, "Grandeur et Adversite de
Jean Tritheme ,Paris: Editions Traditionelles, 1963.
[TUCK] Harris, Frances A., "Solving Simple Substitution
Ciphers," ACA, 1959.
[TUKK] Tuckerman, B., "A Study of The Vigenere-Vernam Single
and Multiple Loop Enciphering Systems," IBM Report
RC2879, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown
Heights, N.Y. 1970.
[TURN] Turn, Rein, "Advances in Computer Security," Artec
House, New York, 1982. [Original papers on Public Key
Cryptography, RSA, DES]
[UBAL] Ubaldino Mori Ubaldini, "I Sommergibili begli Oceani:
La Marina Italian nella Seconda Guerra Mondiale," vol
XII, Roma, Ufficio Storico della Marina Militare,
1963.
[USAA] U. S. Army, Office of Chief Signal Officer,
"Instructions for Using the Cipher Device Type M-94,
February, 1922," USGPO, Washington, 1922.
[USAH] Gilbert, James L. and John P. Finnegan, Eds. "U. S.
Army Signals Intelligence in World War II: A
Documentary History," Center of Military History,
United States Army, Washington, D.C. 1993
[USSF] "U.S. Special Forces Operational Techniques," FM 31-
20, Headquarters Department Of The Army, December
1965.
[USOT] "U.S. Special Forces Recon Manual," Elite Unit
Tactical Series, Lancer, Militaria, Sims, ARK. 71969,
1982.
[VAIL] Vaille, Euggene, Le Cabinet Noir, Paris Presses
Universitaires de Frances, 1950.
[VALE] Valerio, "De La Cryptographie," Journal des Scienses
militares, 9th series, Dec 1892 - May 1895, Paris.
[VAND] Van de Rhoer, E., "Deadly Magic: A personal Account of
Communications Intilligence in WWII in the Pacific,
New York, Scriber, 1978.
[VERN] Vernam, A. S., "Cipher Printing Telegraph Systems For
Secret Wire and Radio Telegraphic Communications," J.
of the IEEE, Vol 45, 109-115 (1926).
[VIAR] de Viaris in Genie Civil: "Cryptographie",
Publications du Journal Le Genie Civil, 1888.
[VIA1] de Viaris, "L'art de chiffre et dechiffre les depeches
secretes," Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1893.
[VOGE] Vogel, Donald S., "Inside a KGB Cipher," Cryptologia,
Vol XIV, Number 1, January 1990.
[VN] "Essential Matters - History of the Cryptographic
Branch of the Peoples Army of Viet-Nam, 1945 - 1975,"
U.S. Cryptological History Series, Series V, NSA CSS,
CH-E32-94-02, 1994.
[WALL] Wallis, John, "A Collection of Letters and other
Papers in Cipher" , Oxford University, Bodleian
Library, 1653.
[WAL1] Wallace, Robert W. Pattern Words: Ten Letters and
Eleven Letters in Length, Aegean Park Press, Laguna
Hills, CA 92654, 1993.
[WAL2] Wallace, Robert W. Pattern Words: Twelve Letters and
Greater in Length, Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA
92654, 1993.
[WATS] Watson, R. W. Seton-, ed, "The Abbot Trithemius," in
Tudor Studies, Longmans and Green, London, 1924.
[WAY] Way, Peter, "Codes and Ciphers," Crecent Books, 1976.
[WEBE] Weber, Ralph Edward, "United States Diplomatic Codes
and Ciphers, 1175-1938, Chicago, Precedent Publishing,
1979.
[WELS] Welsh, Dominic, "Codes and Cryptography," Oxford
Science Publications, New York, 1993.
[WELC] Welchman, Gordon, 'The Hut Six Story', McGraw-Hill,
New York 1982.
[WELS] Welsh, Dominic, "Codes and Cryptography," Oxford
Science Publications, New York, 1993.
[WHOR] Whorf, B. L., "A Linguistic Consideration of Thinking
In Primitive Communities," In Language, Thought, and
Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf, ed.
J. B. Carroll, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 65-86.,
1956.
[WILL] Williams, Eugenia, "An Invitation to Cryptograms,"
Simon and Schuster, 1959.
[WILD] Wildman, Ted, "The Expendables," Clearwater Pub., 1983
[WINJ] Winton, J., " Ultra at Sea: How Breaking the Nazi Code
Affected Allied Naval Strategy During WWII," New Uork,
William Morror, 1988.
[WINK] Winkle, Rip Van, "Hungarian: The Cryptogram,", March -
April 1956.
[WINF] Winterbotham, F.W., 'The Ultra Secret', Weidenfeld
and Nicolson, London 1974.
[WINR] Winter, Jack, "Solving Cryptarithms," ACA, 1984.
[WOLE] Wolfe, Ramond W., "Secret Writing," McGraw Hill Books,
NY, 1970.
[WOLF] Wolfe, Jack M., " A First Course in Cryptanalysis,"
Brooklin College Press, NY, 1943.
[WRIX] Wrixon, Fred B. "Codes, Ciphers and Secret Languages,"
Crown Publishers, New York, 1990.
[XEN1] PHOENIX, "Xenocrypt Handbook," American Cryptogram
Association, 1 Pidgeon Dr., Wilbraham, MA., 01095-
2603, for publication March, 1996.
[YARD] Yardley, Herbert, O., "The American Black Chamber,"
Bobbs-Merrill, NY, 1931.
[YAR1] Yardley, H. O., "The Chinese Black Chamber," Houghton
Mifflin, Boston, 1983.
[YAR2] Yardley, H. O., "Yardleygrams", Bobbs Merrill, 1932.
[YAR3] Yardley, H. O., "The Education of a Poker Player,
Simon and Schuster, 1957.
[YOKO] Yukio Yokoyama, "Tokushu joho kaisoka," unpublished
handwritten manuscript.
[YOUS] Youshkevitch, A. P., Geschichte der Mathematik im
Mittelatter, Liepzig, Germany: Teubner, 1964.
[YUKI] Yukio Nishihara, "Kantogan tai-So Sakusenshi," Vol
17., unpublished manuscript, National Institute for
Defense Studies Military Archives, Tokyo.,(hereafter
NIDS Archives)
[ZIM] Zim, Herbert S., "Codes and Secret Writing." William
Morrow Co., New York, 1948.
[ZEND] Callimahos, L. D., Traffic Analysis and the Zendian
Problem, Agean Park Press, 1984. (also available
through NSA Center for Cryptologic History)
[ZYZZ] ZYZZ,"Sinkov's Frequency Matching," JA93, The
Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1993. |